CC BIO 44 - The Physical Environment of Earth Lecture Notes (6 pages)

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The Physical Environment of Earth Lecture Notes



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The Physical Environment of Earth Lecture Notes

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Pages:
6
School:
Claremont College
Course:
Bio 44 - Introductory Biology
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The Physical Environment of Earth 1 Adaptation to the environment evolution so what is the environmental variation Terrestrial 1 Sunlight wind patterns global rainfall patterns rain shadows climate profiles 2 Plant Communities basis of ecosystems Merriam Mt Lemon basis water temperature naming most obvious plants definition of a community organisms living together organisms interacting ranges of individual species Note actual vs potential niches range limits Uniqueness of each spot effect on predictability basic concept communities are human constructs designed to organize information As such they can change How many plant communities in California 3 Plant Succession description chaparral ponderosa primary pioneer climax communities dominance climax community who wins fire and flood as natural events when is a fire bad not regular inc frequency dec freq flood prevention nile river local rivers jungle succession one tree at a time World Biomes 1 World biomes Holdrige classification 2 Invasions similar conditions possibility of survival survival depends on physical conditions biotic predators fitting in 3 Species Ranges tropics vs temperate effects of vegetational destruction 4 What determines Numbers of species isolating mechanisms differences between temperate vs tropics ecosystem structure stability complexity effects of habitat destruction and extinction tropics vs temperate 5 World organismal changes effects of human activities Atmospheric effects ozone hole CO2 levels Low level pollution Temperature effects The physical environment aquatic systems 1 water dissolved oxygen light nutrients substrate wave action 2 division into regions of life Fresh water lakes eutrophic oligotrophic streams swamps 3 Human effects pollution BOD water flow acid rain 4 water supply How we deal with it The oceans 1 Oceans habitats depth substrate distribution of nutrients deep hot areas etc 2 Ocean current patterns 3 C02 and sea level changes Ozone hole effects 4 Pollution Interactions within Communities food chains predator prey numbers at each step numbers biomass calories 10 efficiency suburban food chains pets decomposers biomagnification food webs dynamic shape changes with seasons individuals keystone species generalist vs specialist Nutrient cycling material cycling use of air water land as part of the cycles typical systems terrestrial aquatic Special relationships coevolution Interdependence of All systems through air and water Disruption fire etc can lead to complexity Species Conservation 1 Extinction rates recently through time Major causes U S vs world Neotropical migrants possible causes frogs 2 What s bad about extinction 3 Who goes extinct 4 History of conservation in the U S World economic game likes and dislikes birds and whales moral imperative endangered species act 5 Species vs habitat preservation Habitat Conservation 1 Review what is a habitat plant community what is the effect of saving varying percentages what is the structure of a community 2 History of Habitat Conservation in the U S Forest Service National Park Service National Wildlife Refuges Other 3 Habitat Conservation Plans U S drawbacks 4 world Situation Amazon Animal Behavior Introduction 1 2 3 4 Introduction behavior as part of biology Innate v Learned how is behavior controlled nature or nurture ethologists v psychologists Darwin v Freedom of the individual Examples of behavior genetic and learned aspects love birds bird song frog predation on flies Distribution of learned v genetic control taxonomic v opportunity for learning Causality of behavior components chart ultimate v proximate causality past v now What is the goal of behavior fitness how defined inclusive fitness Behavior Implications of Proximate Components and Control Mechanisms 1 2 3 4 Implications of the Genetic Control of Behavior inexactness simple messages stereotyped responses FAP IRM superstimuli examples red attack mother love inexactness bills and eggs superstimuli Imprinting ducks song critical learning periods Possibilities of mimicry nest parasitism So why use genetic control have to Implications of hormonal control how hormones work displacement redirection conflict behavior Implications of Nervous system involvement reflexes control distribution among animals reflex FAP sensory abilities multichannel system what happens when inputs conflict visual illusions NOTE evolutionary statements you actually see what is there learning short vs long term memory Integration of it all Complex behaviors bird migration hormones readiness to migrate fat deposits nerves sense environment day length navigation multichannel critical learning period migration period control learned and genetic mirror image misorientation storks in Europe Behavior Implications of Ultimate Control 1 Ultimate control evolution and environment 2 Non Adaptive behaviors are there any Altruism helpers warning calls self sacrifice Infanticide siblicide possible real non adaptive behaviors mutation etc 3 Efficiency foraging behavior 4 Applications to Mating and Reproduction sex ratio mating who chooses what to choose fighting how to avoid Territoriality what is it Who owns territory early arrival honest signaling the frog pond 5 Alternative Strategies more frog pond Lect 38 Social Systems Mon May 3 1 Social Organization rare lots of reasons to be asocial weaning are males good for anything is it worth staying with a female Why be social have to for the sake of the kids inclusive fitness 2 Types of mating systems classifications monogamy polygamy polyandry polygyny promiscuity 3 True social behavior groups of multiple males plus 4 Correlates of social behavior grooming communication hierarchies xenophobia and the opposite 4 The intensity of fighting 5 Communication see book Human Behavior Sociobiology 1 Sociobiology definition 2 Change in human life organization last 5000 years is our behavior genetically controlled can we change Toffler Ardrey 3 How to study human behavior twin studies cross cultural and cross species analysis 4 Human behaviors under genetic control simple smiling greeting mother love complex aggression learning periods altruism child abuse 5 Cautionary notes how changeable is behavior knowing the game how uniform is behavior population or stochastic prediction what we can know and not know Sinsheimer brain design


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