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UWEC GEOG 401 - Human Variables, Locational Trends

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12/11/20071Brandon [email protected]://www.affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/immigration_protest_small.jpghttp://www.andycarvin.com/photos/immigration.jpg The immigrant rise in the 1800’s consisted mostly of people coming from Europe. The new red bars represent new immigration, primarily from Asia and Latin America. Immigration from Europe has decreased.http://farm1.static.flickr.com/163/383330445_cb04fc7524.jpg12/11/20072 Most of the Hispanic immigrants have settled in the Southwestern regions of the U.S. We can also see higher percentages in Urban centers such as Chicago and New York.http://web.stratfor.com/images/northamerica/map/4_4_latino_us_978.jpg Buffalo Co: Pop = 13,804Trempealeau Co: Pop = 27,010Strum, WI Population: 1,001Trempealeau CountyAgricultural Rural Areas12/11/20073 “They Take Our Jobs!, written by Aviva Chomsky. “The American Public Opposes Immigration, and the Debate in Congress Reflects That.” Millions of people in the United States support immigration and immigrant rights. Meanwhile there are millions of people who believe that we should increase measures to prevent immigration.One of the biggest debates in the nation. Some General Supporters of Immigrants: Employers seeking to meet labor demands Human Rights Activists Progressives Some General Opposition toward Immigration: Unskilled Laborers in competition Traditionalists Xenophobes What are some Factors? Is Location Important?12/11/20074Less Competition and High Labor Demand"We realized we weren't able to run to the efficiency that we needed to run at. We couldn't find the people to work.“ Erika K. “Well, we’d have a need for workers. If employers could get people to do work here locally, I’m sure they would.” A. OlguinFamily Friends and Family in Region Replace themselvesLess Perceived Threats (IN THE PAST)Empty Spaces and IsolationLess assimilative pressuresLess Prejudice and Conflict (TRUE TODAY?) “My attitude is very negative and it’s increasing. We should have two hunting seasons.” “This is a very tight community. We are not very accepting to outsiders, especially if they are not Caucasian.” “They are taking jobs away from hard working people. Employers like them because they can pay less. In this country they are illegal, they don’t pay taxes or Social Security.”“There are more disturbances in the community and more need for law enforcement.”“They find it easier here; welfare is easier to get in Wisconsin. A while back I remember white people coming to Wisconsin for welfare. Mexicans want welfare in Wisconsin.”“People aren’t accepting them.”- All are anonymous quotes from people we interviewed in the region.(Why do people think this way?)12/11/20075 Level of Income: Minnesota Study links Income with Immigrant Tolerance. (Jones, 2003.) Conclusions:75% of those who had an income of $75,000 or more thought immigration was good for the nation.46% of those with incomes under $30,000 agreed. Political Preference andPatriotism: Same Study for Political Ideology: 57% For Conservatives 35% For Liberals  44% For Moderates. PatriotismStrong connection to present and past conditions.Changes can create negative attitudes.12/11/20076 Level of Education: Studies show a link between education level and attitudes toward immigrants. (Fennelly, Federico, 2007.) More Education Increases Immigrant Tolerance.Reasons Include: More Income More exposure to diversity Higher confidence in job security negating fear from immigrant labor. Instilment of multicultural ideas. Race and Ethnicity: Whites are more likely to have an anti-immigrant stance than other races.Reasons? Minorities are more likely to have empathy from past discrimination. Minorities are more likely to have lived in less homogeneous communities, adding to multicultural experiences. (F&F 2007)12/11/20077 Other Factors: AgeAs age increases, the likelihood of immigrant support decreases.Why? More likely to live with less diversity.  More racism in the past. Today’s young are more likely to be highly educated. Resistant to change. Other Factors: Social Networks and Upbringing Heavy influence from Friends and Family. Especially Childhood. Peer Pressure Other Factors: Unemployment Rate and Economic Outlook When Unemployment is High, tolerance for immigration goes down When the Economic Outlook in the future is good, tolerance Increases. Urban Areas are More Likely to support immigrants than Rural Areas. UrbanSuburban RuralToo many immigrants50.654.362.1Immigrants are bad for the country34.242.655.2Immigrants take jobs away 41.351.156.6Immigrants are a burden on our economy45.146.365.8(Fennelly, Federico, 2007.)12/11/20078 Why the divide?Demographic Factors: Rural Areas are usually older, poorer, more conservative, less educated, more patriotic, and less diverse than urban areas. (All of these factors point toward less acceptance.)Us vs. Them: Competition is a new threat due to small population. Every gain by a minority is considered a loss for the natives of the community.Feeling of Superiority: The idea that they are inherently better than immigrants. http://www.reform-america.net/immigration_rally.jpg“One thing I don’t like to see, I don’t understand why they (Mexicans) send money back to Mexico and Mexico benefits from this, I don’t understand why our government lets them do this.” - Anonymous“Employers that hire illegals should be turned in and prosecuted. We need to take control of our own people first. Why should they get everything free!” - Anonymous“I think we’d have to seriously consider selling our cows. I get nervous, watching the news and following the immigration debate, and I think ‘What if they take my Mexicans away?’”. - Anonymous“I Don’t believe in having 2 languages in the USA, if you can’t have 2 in Mexico. You don’t see them speaking a lot of English down there.” - AnonymousIllustrates Superiority Illustrates Us. Vs. Them12/11/20079 Educate: Inform about myths of perceived costs Inform about benefits and multiculturalism Affect Leadership: Rural communities are strongly influenced by local and national leadership


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