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1st Cataract
Located in the city of Aswan (Egypt) A shallow stretch of a river where the surface is broken by numerous small boulders and stones protruding from the riverbed. This location made navigation to the delta possible w/ out encountering a barrier
A group and C group
The first original cultures of Nubia. the A group is the oldest.
Annual Flood
predictable flooding allowed Egyptians to create times which they would have the flood, sow the land, and harvest (for farmers or foragers
The single factor credited with giving the opportunity to the ancient Mesopotamian cultures to develop such inventions as pottery, weaving, housing, the calendar and mathematics.
Bevel Rim bowl
Mesopotamian style bowl that was used for regulation during work for food basis. Originated in regulation of food (Uruk)
Bulla/ Token
Used for record keeping and counting. First example of writing. This allows for long distance communication. Possibly evolved at Ur.
Independent, jurisdictional district; ordinances; created by the state
a sovereign state comprising a city and the surrounding countryside
The stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced.
the process of exploring and maintaining colonies in one territory by another country
Complexity vs. Simplicity
-hunters and gatherers vs modern industrial society
Conspicuous consumption
Display of riches
craft specialization
production that exceeds the needs of the household or kin group
wedge-shaped writing usually produced using a stylus and clay tablets.
Cylinder Seals
Small cylinder, round hollow and the exterior has designs. The picture had a seal of administration would use. We see that they used the clay as signature or rule and prestige.
the process of converting wild animals or wild plants into forms that humans can care for and cultivate adaption for human use
Giza Plateau
Location of Great Pyramids
7000-6000 BCE lay foundation of agriculture & pottery production. Begining of export.
1st development towards meso civ. pottery, northern tigris
centralized, social hierarchy (warfare & wealth)
A social group arranged in ranks or classes.
4000-3000 BC Africa Major center of predynastic Egypt
The thoughts and beliefs that reflect the social needs and aspirations of an individual or an ethnocultural group
The extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories.
The use of connected ditches, canals, or pipes to move water to dry areas
- earliest known neolithic villages -2,000 residents -built walls and a moat around the city
Long Distance Trade
Enables cities to interact and share ideas of politics. It increased interaction amongst many people it also enabled cultures to further develop with architecture and other social ideals.
Rectangular burial monument in ancient Egypt.
-unstable flooding -land between 2 rivers -sumerians -canal and dykes -super cities -sig- self-governed city-states
The Middle Kingdom
2050- 1700 B.C.E. -increase in trade with other regions, including mesopotamia -growing belief in life after death -rather than building great pyramids the kings undertook vast irrigation and land reclamation projects
Monumental Architecture
part of social stratification; required aspect of civilization
king who combined crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt
- Domestication - intro to pottery (1st time) - specialized stone tool technology - specialized grinding instraments
Region south of the first cataract in the Nile
Old Kingdom
* pyramid age - only during OK * Memphis was the capital * Pharaoh looked upon as: Mean and to be afraid of
god-kings of Egypt, directly responsible for the people; connected the people to the gods
Predynastic Ivory Tags
used as a method of accounting for resources and taxes etc. Indicates who sent what and how much. used to catalogue kings riches
Prestige goods
Luxuries Show social rank Status markers
A resting place for kings of the Old Kingdom after death advanced architechure
Redistributive Economy
A central authority takes money from the people and redistributes it back to the people in a different way.
Universal Definition: A people's beliefs about & relations with the sacred or transcendent, however locally defined
Royal Tombs at Ur
2700-2350 BCE leadership, faith, & culture accomplishments people were buried alive with Kings & Queens faith was taken very serious tombs were room networks
evidence that first pyramids developed here in dynasty 3 -dynasty 2 kings buried here -first step pyramid
secondary state
emerges on the fringes of where the primary state is taking place external influence important but is muted by what is happening internally
settled life in villages
Standardized Measurements
size of pottery weights & mass (scales were regulated by state) brick sizes/measurements to create temples
State-level society
1. Centralized political power 2. Social classes 3. Occupational specialization 4. Coercive military or police force 5. Official religion to legitimize ruler 6. Multiple levels of decion making 7. Writing or complex record keeping 8. Urban centers controlling periphery
-3500 BCE- contains numerous city-states -Kings were originally military chiefdom, began to claim they were made King because of Gods Choice -Priests, Merchants, Workers, Slavery -Tigris and Euphrates River
Product inventory increases against a decreasing demand
technologies of social control
Prone to defining and defending areas of sleep, eating exercise and play
Ubaid pottery
7,000 - 6,000 B.P. first discovered at the site of Tell el-Ubaid associated with advanced chiefdoms and the earliest states in Mesopotamia
-1stSumerian city-state that served as a religious center -had tons of immigration -birthplace of writing
Early examples are codices and hieroglyphics. Very useful archaeological examples that help reveal the past
massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels
Key Characteristics of Civilizations
complex institutions advanced cities specialized workers record keeping advanced technology
social function of monumental architecture
gives impression of power to people in city, to surrounding leaders -makes people feel safe -gives message to other leader
Theories of Origins of First Civilizations
1. First Civilizations had their roots in the Agricultural Revolution 2. First Civilizations tended to develop from earlier, competing chiefdoms that already had some social rank and economic specialization 3. process was gradual and evolutionary
Origins and functions of writing in Mesopotamia; Who was literate? What were written documents used for in different periods?
Uruk: proto-cuneiform and later clay tokens and bullae, first used as a way of measuring exchanges used to keep records of the flow of goods (who was giving/recieving); less than 5% of people literate so those who are literate control/have access to information
Why did some cultures choose NOT to adopt the technology of writing
Nubia and the Empire of Egypt
Egypt control ended by 1200 BCE but trading, political, and economic influence in the region continued for centuries. controlled Nubia till 1050 BCE when it broke free and helped end the New Kingdom of Egypt. 3 centuries later Nubia captured Egypt and remained strong rulling over Egypt it…
Middle Kingdom - Political Organization
-Pharaoh did not have the supreme authority we saw in the Old Kingdom -Instead, more Feudal
Old Kingdom Egypt - political organization
the gods-the king (pharaoh)-the vizier-administrators-nomarchs-people; political stability, high degree of centralization
domestication: implications
involves shifting strategies, needs, cultural preferences tremendous and sustainable population growth surplus: trade items, occupational specialization foundations for civilizations
what came along with the rise of states?
long distance trade organization warfare irrigation
where was sumer?
what is important in ur????
the tombs
what is pastoralism?
nomads with domesticated animals
what group was the first and middle kingdom?
before old, what was the group?
old kingdom gorup

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