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Mass Communication
process in which professional communicators design and use media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly and continually in order to arouse intended meaning in large, diverse and selectively attending audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways
Mediated Communication
Interpersonal communication aided by sophisticated media technology that conquers both TIME and DISTANCE
Marketplace of Ideas
The "marketplace of ideas" is a rationale for freedom of expression based on an analogy to the economic concept of a free market.
Conglomerate
A conglomerate merger is officially defined as being "any merger that is not horizontal or vertical; in general, it is the combination of firms in different industries or firms operating in different geographic areas".
Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history.
Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication
sender encoding message receiver decoding noise
Pop Culture
Popular culture (commonly known as pop culture) is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images and other phenomena that are deemed preferred per an informal consensus within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the e…
Why take pop culture seriously in mass communication?
p. 228
Media disseminates and presents pop culture
p. 227
Sports
240-242
How the internet changed music
243-244
Characteristics of a book
-less timely than other print media (i.e. newspapers and magazines) -differ from newspapers and magazines - bound and covered and are consecutive from beginning to end -made to last longer than any other print medium and this feature lends itself to in-depth, durable exploration and deve…
Medium
a device by which a sender can move physical info (graphic symbols: sound, light, radio, waves, etc.) through time / space in such a way that one or more people can receive the infor and decipher the senders intended message
Mnemonic Devices
(representing ideas w/ graphic symbols) - serving as memory simulators -depictions sucks as cave paintings could help a storyteller provide a more detailed and accurate account compared w/ unaided recall
Parchment
made as the use of writing spread from animal skins very $$$$$ entire animal skin produced only a few pages very durable, which helped some ancient scrolls survive into later centuries
Technological Determinism
Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values.
Ideographic Writing
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek idea "idea" + grafo "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept. "thought writing" AKA Pictographic Writing it associated specific whole thoughts/meanings w/ pics in a standardized way systems developed independently by the ear…
Phonogram
symbol representing a vocal sound
Woodcuts
Woodcut-formally known as xylography-is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with gouges.
Manu Scripti
hand-written books; monks used this form of writing in Christian Monasteries
Movable Type
Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation). printing press - Gutenberg
Scroll
A scroll is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper which has been written, drawn or painted upon for the purpose of transmitting information or using as a decoration.
Print Culture
Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication.
Chapbook
19th Century format book; small paperback booklet or pamphlet
Newspaper
A newspaper is a regularly scheduled publication containing news, information, and advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. printed daily or weekly
News Media
The news media refers to the section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. P. 60
John Peter Zenger
newspaper publisher who went to court against governor of NY, William Cosby, in order to help establish 1st Amendment
Seditious Libel Law
outlawed publication of untruths regarding government
Keys to Newspaper Growth
population technology civil war
Yellow Journalism
journalism based on sensationalism and crude exaggeration
Sensationalism
Sensationalism is a manner of over-hyping events, being deliberately controversial, loud, self centred or acting to obtain attention.
Wire Services
national and worldwide newsgathering associations that bring local newspapers a daily flow of stories from beyond their communities
Feature Syndicate
commercial groups that contract with publishers to provide many of features that make up the content of today's newspapers
Inverted Pyramid
The inverted pyramid is a metaphor used by journalists and other writers to illustrate the placing of the most important information first within a text.
Editorial
An editorial is an opinion piece written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper or magazine.
Publick Occurences
earliest newspaper publish only survived 1 issue spoke out against government
Boston News Letter
First published on April 24, 1704, The Boston News-Letter is regarded as the first continuously published newspaper in British North America. John Campbell
New York Herald
1835 James Gordon Bennett
New York Sun
1833 Benjamin Davis Slogan - "It Shines For All" target appeal to less sophisticated audience human interest items about common people 1 penny
Newsboys
sold New York Sun on streets for a penny
Magazine
word comes from Arabic word makhasin meaning "storehouse" 1st Magazine: 1704 (London) "The Review" published less frequently than NP, manufactured in a different format, better paper quality, bound rather than folded, some kind of cover, historically appeal to larger audiences not just l…
Colonial Barriers to Growth
No accessible market existed due to population conditions - nature and dispersion of pop (widespread, isolated, no truly accessible market) - economics of publishing at the time (all work done by publisher, no national market, paid for almost entirely by subscriber) - state of transporta…
Keys to 1800s Growth
population increase: RAPID, 1800 US pop - 5.3 mill (size of ATL), 1900 US pop 75.9 mill, immigration, acquired lands urbanization (many ppl. moved into cities): city dwelling is pop, less need to farm, more $, more edu transportation improves: networks become stronger, Erie Canal, Steamb…
How TV affected Magazines in 20th Century
advertising dollars are lost TV kills a few magazines sign of things to come
Muckraking
investigative journalism conducted with the goal of bringing about social reform -term coined by Theodore Roosevelt
Ida Tarbell
muckraker who exposed Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company was hired by McClure (although not to expose but rather build up)
Digest
collection of excerpts from other publications - Reader's Digest
Nickelodeon
idea of renting films admission - 1 nickel Inventors: Harry P. Davis and John P. Harris
Visual Persistence
"The brain will persist in seeing an object when it is no longer before the eye itself." A series of still pics that capture the moving object in progressively different positions. When the stills are run through a projector at the correct speed, the viewer perceives an illusion of smoot…
Thomas Edison
played vital role in motion picture technology invented the kinetoscope (while turning a crank a viewer could look inside the machine and see a brief film on a small screen) and the vitascope
William Dickenson
Edison's assistant who developed the 1st practical motion picture camera
Inventors of the kinetoscope and kinetograph
kinetoscope - Edison kintography - 1st format war
Talkies
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. AT&T used enormous capital resources to produce
Daguerreotype
The daguerreotype (; original French: daguerrotype) was the first publicly announced photographic process. inventor: Louis Daguerre with partner Joseph Niepce (chemist)
Phenakistoscope
The phenakistoscope (also spelled phenakistiscope) was an early animation device that used the persistence of vision principle to create an illusion of motion.
Radio Waves
Heinrich Hertz longest waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which also include light waves in 1887 he had constructed a simple transmitter and receiver and had demonstrated of what we know today as radio waves
Frequency Modulation is great for broadcasting music
Frequency Modulation is great for broadcasting music
How radio can make money
advertising XM & satellite radio
Frequency Modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. 1933 Edwin Armstrong (did nothing to publicize innovation)
National Public Radio
NPR, formerly National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to 797 public radio stations in the United States of America.
Public Broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public. p. 162
Public Domain
Works are in the public domain if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all, if the intellectual property rights have expired, and/or if the intellectual property rights are forfeited.
Market Share
Market share, in strategic management and marketing is, according to Carlton O'Neal, the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company.
VCR
The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder or video machine), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be playe…
DVD
DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Time Warner in 1995. DVD discs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions.
Vladimir Zworykin
Russian inventor / engineer had been a communication specialist in the army of Tsar Nicholas, where he had worked on early TV experiments before the Russian Revolution
Westinghouse
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (WEC) is a nuclear power company, offering a wide range of nuclear products and services to utilities throughout the world, including nuclear fuel, service and maintenance, instrumentation and control and advanced nuclear plant designs. Zworykin went th…
Philo Farnsworth
one of the inventors of TV -1st to reach conclusion that electronic devices were needed to sweep across a scene or picture rapidly in a series of horizontal lines and transform those variations into signals that could be broadcast over the air. -Parallel electronic devices for reception …
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird FRSE (1888-1946) was a Scottish engineer and inventor of the world's first practical, publicly demonstrated television system, and also the world's first fully electronic color television tube. His electromechanical system was eventually displaced by purely electronic s…
Selective Exposure
choose what you will take in do people seek out to reinforce or challenge their own opinions? - [Generally] No.
CPU
The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions.
RAM
Random Access Memory
How the Internet began
Began w/ the Atticus Early comp could fill a room Military began to create networks (set infor in chunks to be reassembled at the the destination; protocols were invented) Compuserve - 1979; network invented for email and tech support Personal Comp - popular in 80s AOL - 1989
Mosaic
first web browser
ARPANET
national network created by the military would later connect with other networks leading to the birth of the civilian "net"
Web 2.0
gave advertisers much greater capacity to reach individuals and audiences with addressable, targeted messages tailored to the specific consumer
Economic Convergence
The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies.
Technological Convergence
Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks.

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