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define incidence
the rate at which new cases occur in a population during a specified period
define prevalence
the proportion of a population that are cases (of a disease) at a point in time
population of USA
314 million
What are the causes of neurological disorderS?
brain injury (mechanical,stroke) diseases (autoimmune, infectious, toxic agent) abnormal brain development unknown
what part of the CNS is affected when someone has a neurological disorder?
neurons and their structures sensory, motor controls, cognitive and affective function
What are the treatments and cures for neuro disorders?
medications surgery support services (OT, PT, etc.)
synonym for mental retardation
intellectual disability
What is the frequency of downs syndrome?
incidence 1 in 800 live births prevalence 400,000 people in USA
What is the cause of downs syndrome?
trisomy mosaic or trisomy of chromosome 21
what part of the CNS is affected for Downs Syndrome?
brains are smaller
Which brain functions are affected in Downs Syn?
brain development and facial structure, cognitive function, IQ<70, motor system resulting in delayed childrens milestones structure of heart vision & eyes short stature, obesity, early onset towards Alzheimers
What are the treatments for downs syndrome?
no cure
What is the frequency of krabbe disease?
incidence 1 in 100,000 live briths in US prevalence 2 million people in US
What is the cause of krabbe disease?
genetic and herditary, single gene mutation, chromosome 14 which encodes for enzyme galactocerebrosidase which is necesssary for myelin formation around axons
What are the effect on the CNS for krabbe disease?
no myelin formation around axons
Krabbe Disease: What are the functions effected?
babies develop normally for first 2-3 months then symptoms irritability, increased muscle tone, stiffness, loss of motor control, seizures, blindness, death age 2
Treatments or cures for Krabbe Disease?
no cures, treatment- cord blood transplants = HSCT Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Epilepsy: What is the frequency of this disease?
VERY COMMON incidence: prevalence: almost 1% population or 2.3 million americans
Epilepsy: What are the causes?
injury -mechanical genetic mutations brain structural differences brain tumors multiple sclerosis
Epilepsy: What part of the CNS is affected and functions?
A. partial simple (focal)- specific foci, motor cortex, movement and sensory experience with no loss of consciousness B. partial complex - temporal lobe origin, lip-smacking ,picking at clothes , not full consciousness, aura C. Tonic Clonic - loss of consciousness, falling, inceased mus…
Epilepsy: What are the treatment options?
a. drugs b. ketogenic diet c. VNS e. brain surgery to remove a "seizure focus", brain hemisphere or corpus callossum
petit mal
generalized structures - absence
grand mal
generalized structures - tonic clonic
post-ictal period
period between seizures
aura
warning to a person that a seizure is coming

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