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ANTHRO 2050: EXAM 1

Anthropology
The study of human beings
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What are the four fields of Anthropology
Biological, Cultural, Archaeology, Linguistic
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Sociocultural Anthropology
Living people around the world - Cultural Anthro.
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Participant Observation
Interacting with the cultural you are studying or in.
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Archaeology
Looking at material remains, historical and prehistoric remains.
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Linguistic anthropology
Relationship between language and culture. Structural and historical.
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Applied Anthropology
Using it outside anthropology. Forensic science.
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Ontological
A question that can be asked
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Epistemological
A question that can be answered
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What are some of the assumptions of science
Things are as they seem & experts are smart and honest.
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What are the 3 major steps in normative science
1)Hypothesis 2) Collect Data 3)Exploration
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What is a hypothesis
Statement about the world. Must be testable and faslifiable.
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Hypothesis vs Theory
Hypothesis: Explanation for a phenomenon which requires falsification through testing. Theory: Statement of scientific relationships which hasn't been falsified.
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How do you test a hypothesis about something that happened a long time ago
Good historical hypothesis makes predictions about the world. - Evolution - Dinosaur extinction
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Proximate vs Ultimate
Proximate: How Ultimate: why
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Naturalism
science builds a wall between natural phenomena and everything else
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Parsimony
The simplest explanation is often right
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What did Plato say about Essentialism?
An ideal form exists for every organism
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The Great Chain of Being
Man on top of the chain and every other organism is below
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Nicholaus Steno
Father of geology. Law of Superposition: older stuff on bottom, younger stuff on top.
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Carolous Linnaeus
1) Nested Hierarchy 2)Binomial Nomenclature 3) Recognized similarity between man and ape.
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Buffton
Disagreed with Linnaeus. Thought the Earth was older then what Linnaeus said. He heated up iron balls and how long it took them to cool to see how long it would have taken for the world to cool.
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Georges Cuvier
Knew fossils were extinct animals. Catastrophism: The idea that the Earth had withstood multiple catastrophic events that caused extinction and explained geological record.
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Uniformatarianism
Process at work today, at work in the past.
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Evolutionary thinker before Darwin. Theory on the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Giraffes.
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Thomas Malthus
Economist. Interested in the relationships of human populations to resources
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How did biological thought have to change in order to set the stage for natural selection?
moved from ideas about species fixed in time, unchanging. To the idea of Lemark about evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
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How did philosophical thought have to change in order to set the stage for natural selection?
Moved from ideas like the great chain of being that places at the top of the chain. To linnaeus's rested hierarchy, which situated man within nature next to the ape.
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How did geological thought have to change in order to set the stage for natural selection?
Moved from a religious world view with a very young earth only approx. 6,000 years old. To lyell and Hutton who realized that a lot of time was necessary to explain geological features and that the Earth was old.
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Darwin
Went to school to become a dr. Set sail on the HMS Beagle.
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Alfred Russel Wallace
Corresponded with Darwin while working in Malay. He came up with natural selection while he was sick.
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What are the four main tenants of Darwin's theory of natural selection?
1) In each generation, more offspring are produced than can possibly survive. 2) These offspring exhibit variation - they aren't all the same, although some to resemble the parent generation 3) Some of these variations are better suited for survival 4) The competition that exists between these offspring for limited resources results in differential survival, in favor of the better suited.
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Fitness
the relative reproductive success of an individual.
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What qualities or characteristics must a feature have to be considered an adaptation?
1)Heritable 2)Functional 3)Adaptive 4)Current Function
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What is an out-dated adaptation?
Something that is no longer needed. Seed dispersal by pleistocere
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How does constraint through character correlation work?
Two closely related things. Easy to change one but not the other.
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Physical Constraint
Won't see a mammal the size of a blue whale on land because it is too large.
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Artificial Selection
Large amounts of change in short periods of time
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How does the nested hierarchy support evolution?
Shows were the break off between 2 species are and where within a section species break off and who they are closely related to.
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What is homology? What are the five different types of homology discussed in class?
Similarity due to common ancestry. 1) Comparative anatomy 2) Comparative behavior 3) Developmental Biology 4) Genetic and cell biology 5) Vestigial Features
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Why is natural selection not like an engineer?
1) Engineer has a plan and goal 2) Engineer has all the tools and materials that they need to construct their object 3) trying to make the object perfect
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What is the hierarchy of science? Why is its significance?
Each level is the sum of the ones before that, but with new rules.
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Why do Humans have 4 limbs?
Ancestors had 4 limbs - historical artifact
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How did lungs evolve?
Pockets off the esophagus
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morphospace
Representation of the possible form shape or structure of an organism.
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Can we predict evolutionary trajectories?
No. Too many variable and chance.
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orthogenesis
Hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to evolve in an unlinnear fashion due to internal or external driving forces.
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What is sexual selection? How does it work?
Favors traits that increase the success in competition for mates
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What is sexual dimorphism?
Differences in size, shape or color between the sexes.
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What are the ways males compete for mates?
1) Direct competition 2) Mate preference
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What is the “run-away” theory of sexual selection?
Organisms find a trait more preferable (think butterfly example) They will continue to mate for that trait until the disadvantages outweigh the advantages.
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What is the “good genes” model of sexual selection?
Male ornamentation is an indicator of genetic quality- genetically correlated
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What is the “pre-existing bias” model of sexual selection?
Females just like the look, already have a sensory bias toward a preference of certain traits
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What are some of the human characteristics that might have been caused by sexual selection?
Facial hair, muscle mass, permanent breast swelling
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How do human males and females differ in what they look for in a mate? What is a possible explanation for this?
Men look at more physical aspects and women look for characteristics.
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What is blending inheritance and how is it incompatible with natural selection?
Each parent contributed equally, but they blend together like to buckets of paint
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What is a gene?
A unit of inheritance which occurs at a specific place on a chromosome that provides info for a specific trait
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What is an allele?
The alternate forms of a particular gene at a specific locus.
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What does it mean when an allele is dominant and recessive?
Allele that prevents expression of another trait. Is unexpressed in heterozygotes. Must get the recessive gene from both parents
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What are homozygous and heterozygous?
Homozygous: Identical alleles for a given gene Heterozygous: different alleles.
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What do phenotype and genotype mean?
Phenotype: Physical Genotype: Genes
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What was Mendel’s Law of Segregation?
Genes occur within individuals in pairs. Sex cells carry one gene of each pair
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What was Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment?
Separation and distribution of genes to gametes is random and independent process. Genes for different traits separate independently of one another and are randomly assorted.
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What is sickle-cell anemia? How is it inherited? Why is it maintained in the population?
Abnormal hemoglobin causes sickle-shaped red blood cells because hetero advantage in Africa.
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Genetically, why do some cats and rabbits have dark ears, toes, and tails?
Temperature regulated or age regulated
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What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?
Born XY but body reverts to default of "female"
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What is 5-alpha reductase deficiency?
Testosterone doesn't kick in until puberty.
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What was the American Eugenics Movement? What were its goals? What were the ultimate results?
Attempt made by the American scientific community to breed superior human beings
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What was the Modern Synthesis?
Evolutionary change occurs through the action of natural selection upon small, new changes in the genetic material, which are transmitted between generations following principles of inheritance.
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What is chromosome theory?
Linkage- lots of genes, few chromosomes. Travel together and are therefore associated.
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What is crossing over?
During meiosis some of one allele may become physically joined to some of the others.
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What does polygenic mean?
Environmental influence makes the distribution smoother
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What does pleiotropy mean?
Never just one effect. Ex Sickle cell
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What does imprinting mean?
Inherit only one working gene instead of 2.
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What factors produce and redistribute genetic variation in populations?
1) Independent assortment 2) Crossing over 3) Mutation
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What is gene flow? What is its effect on variation?
Movement of New Genes to an area
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What is genetic drift? What is its effect on variation within and between populations?
There might be more of a certain gene in a population to go to the next generation.
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What is founder effect?
Founders of a new area will create a higher frequency for certain genes
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What is inbreeding? What affect does it have on rare alleles?
Promotes homozygosity
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