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Major "Culture-system" based around cities (and identified solely for the practical purpose of dealing rationally with the complexity of history) 
Western Civilization
Centered around the Mediterranean, beginning with Greeks, expanded with the Roman Empire, Broke apart into three segments in the middle ages 
Challenges with defining Western Civilization
Scholars define Western Civ differently because there are many components to it. 
Neolithic Revolution
8000-5000 BC: Moved from hunter gatherer to growing food and domesticated animals. Emergence of cities 
How did human life change for people in Mesopotamia after the emergence of true cities?
Food Surplus, emergence of specialized classes of workers , division of labor, Rulers emerged, centered around religion 
Mesopotamian connections to Western Civilization
Cities, writing, the wheel, Law codes, Religion, Empire, Pastoralism, 
Egyptian connections to Western Civilization
Law, centralized state, trade connections with western culture, religion, architecture 
Egypt vs. Mesopotamia
Egypt was centralized, centralized religion, more stable, focused around one ruler, used hieroglyphs mostly rural, Mesopotamia was decentralized, full of warring city states, used cuneiform instead of hieroglyphs 
First Mesopotamian civilization, southern Mesopotamia, cities focused around temples to their gods, first writers, irrigation techniques, cuneiform 
Akkadian empire
First empire, semetic language, first law codes, bureaucracy, postal service, roads, constant expansion, huge military, used propaganda, standard weights and measures 
Ammorites (old Babylon)
Hammurabi, law codes, spread myths that all gods surrendered to god of Babylon Marduke. 
Pastoralism, partially militarized, many tribes with chieftains, warlike culture, descendants of Akkadians, traded a lot, standing army, deported huge populations of those they conquered, first leather shoes, composite bows, Iron everything, light fast chariots, forced colonization, first…
Capital of Assyria 
Centralized, centered around a ruler, Ma'at: Law right, truth, justice, established at creation, hieroglyphs, mostly rural 
Old Kingdom
Egypt (2650-2150 BC) god-king idea introduced (Pharaoh), massive building projects, capital is mephis 
Middle Kingdom
Egypt (2050-1650 BC) first expansion by Egyptian state, capital moved to thebes, Osiris becomes popular, ends with Hyksos invasion 
Chariot riding nomads, ruled Egypt for a hundred years, came from the north east, inspired change in Egyptian culture 
New Kingdom
Egypt (1550-1050 BC) Moved north, built up military, first time Pharaoh is used, height of Egyptian empire, fell apart around 1200 BC, Sea peoples attacked, Egypt won. 
(1750-1200 BC) Indo-European, probably came from caucus mountains, conquered Anatolia, fearsome, quick, charioteers, took over trade routes, Hattusas was capital, took down Babylonian empire, kings were also high priests, skilled dimplomats, lost to sea peoples 
Centered on Crete, Very old, influenced through trade, commercial culture, started decentralized, Linear A, skilled in agriculture, established colonies in the Mediterranean, First palaces, paved roads, dominant culture, traded with hittites and egpytians, overrun by Mcyneans 
founded biggest empire at its time, built huge system of roads, huge standing army, capitalized trade, enforced a land tax, allowed conquered civilizations to remain if they paid tribute to the ruler, took on the greeks, never conquered Greece, lost to Alexander the Great 
Emerged into Canaan in 1200s BC Monotheistic, Judaism, very moral, 
Mycenaean culture
Original greeks, named after Mcynea, compared to the Vikings, used linear B, tied to Minoans, decentralized, warrior groups ruled by kings, good traders, lived in an interconnected world, peaked around 1200 BC, Built huge walls, fell around 1000BC 
Greek Dark Age
1000 - 750 BC Mycenaean civilization falls, population declines, articsans disappear, linear B disappears, Iron is introduced, olive oil is rediscovered, Greek culture begins to thrive again 
City States, established by colonists from Greece, helped establish greek democracy, Established citizenship, linked to the development of the Phalanx greek men expected equal rights chief focus in greek life, sparked the birth of philosophy. Moved literature from "epic literature" to d…
A division of men into unites that operate as a sort of battering ram 
Greek Archaic Age
750-500 BC Greeks speak same language, shared the major aspects of a common religion, Mass colonization, first philosophers, tyrants emerge to fix greek city state problems, by the end there were a thousand greek city states, Loyalty was for ones' city state 
Early Greek Philosophy
Started in Miletus, idea that matter comes from something previous, universe is governed by set of laws 
Delphic League
A group of city states united to protect the oracle of Delphi 
Greek city state, Solon is credited with laying the foundations for democracy here, ruled by council, had elections, and casted lots for rulers 
State controlled city state, used slaves for much of its labor, focused on war 
Greek Classical Age
Started with Persian war, Athens emerges as emerge as the "leader" of the Helles, Athens controls Delian League, Abuses its power, Parthenon was built 
Cyrus the Great
Founded Persian empire, conquered most of the known world at the time, let cities stay in control if they paid homage to him, freed peoples that were moved by other empires, tolerant 
Darius I
Emperor after Cyrus, consolidated Persian empire, created system of government, created huge network of spies, left loyal members of military in sub states of Persian empire, used the title King of Kings, Built Persepolis. Invaded Greece, lost at battle of marathon, used its wealth to con…
Persian War I
Ionian Greeks rebel against Darius I, Athens helps, Darius invades Greece, defeated at battle of Marathon. 
Aftermath of Persian War I
Athens builds huge navy of Trireme Navy 
Persian War II
Persian emperor Xerxes I invades Greece for revenge from first Persian war. Sparta holds off Persians at Thermopolis for three days but then is betrayed and defeated. Persians are defeated by Athens at sea. Athens emerges as the leader of the Helles 
Delian League
Alliance of Greek city states that consists of Athens and Ionian city states. Morphs into Athenian empire. Prompted Sparta to create a rival league. 
Greek ideology that prompts the wealthy to spend money on the public domain 
Peloponnesian War
Greek civil war, Athens loses due to plague, signs peace treaty, doesn't honor it, Sparta becomes dominant greek city state until it fails to defend Ionian colonies from the Persians, Thebes defeats Athens, city states are decimated by civil war, Greece is a shell of former glory 
Phillip of Macedonia (Phillip II)
Macedonian, Conquers Greece did not accept Persian gold, father of Alexander the Great, assassinated by bodyguard 
Alexander the Great
Founded the Age of Hellenism. Fought Darius III of Persian and beat him. Never lost a battle to the Persians, goal was to conquer the whole world, men threatened mutiny if he didn't go home after years of conquering, united Greece, took phonecia, egupt, Libya. Marched into india, died at …
Greek Philosopher. Everything known about him is from secondary sources, refused to write anything down, believed knowledge is obtained through discussion, good soldier, forced suicide by the state at 70, purposely lived poor, sought a model for universe, Emphasized human ethics, virtue=k…
Greek Philosopher, Student of Socrates, did not like democracy, advised a tyrant in Syracuse, wrote dialogs meant to make people think, preached that ultimate moral qualities are absolute, Ideal Forms, Dualism, started an academy-lasted 1000 years-wrote the republic, not everyone is a phi…
Ideal Forms
Perfect ideas are only true reality 
humans have souls 
The Republic
Plato's dialog that laid out his political ideas 
(384-322 BC) Student of Plato, Believed in absolute standards of good and evil, stressed logic, rejected Ideal Forms, taught that to understand one must observe, worked in politics, science, literature, art, from Macedonia, started his own school, Emphasized practicality, Everything has a…
"The unmoved Mover
great principle that lies behind everything 
Hellenistic kingdom that emerged from Alexander the great's empire. Controlled Egypt and northern Africa. 
Hellenistic kingdom that emerged from Alexander the great's empire. Controlled Mesopotamia, anatolia, Afghanistan 
(371-287 BC) Student of Aristotle, Loved knowledge, helped found library of Alexandria 
Greek culture in Hellenistic age
New comedy emerged to replace dramas, professional critics established, country poem, love of nature literature, scholars in museum were elites. 
Science in Hellenistic age
Cadavers are first dissected in Alexandria, Euclid and Archimedes make advances in mathematics, steam power emerges, circumference of the earth is calculated, Heliocentric view of universe is developed. 
Philosophy in Hellenistic age
Athens is center, moved to ethics, cynicism, stoicism, epicureanism, skepticism 
developed by diogenese-key to happiness is simplicity 
developed by xeno-happiness comes through the search for wisdom. Preached brotherhood of man 
encouraged withdrawl from public to private life-calm is the key to happiness, believed in gods, believed in a mechanistic universe, no after life. 
doubt, everything is opinion 
Jews in the age of Hellenism
Most live outside Judea, two groups Hellenizers, Traditionlists, most jews spoke greek, torah is translated into greek, foreigners are converted to judaism 
Those who adapt to Hellenistic culture 
Stay true to Jewish Culture and Faith 
Jewish revolt
traditionalists revolt against the selucides. Maccabeas establish a separate state 
Jewish leaders that don't believe in ressurection 
Founders of modern Judaism 
Warlike, pirate, tribe in northern Italy known for their architecture 
Germanic tribe found in northern Italy by the alps 
People found on sicily, main advisories against rome 
Beginning of Rome
Rome is rumored to be city started by Romulus, a rumored refugee from Trojan war. Romulus founds tome in 753 BC 
Why Rome?
Easy access to the sea, easily defended, built on 7 hills, central to italy 
Archaic Rome
(700-509 BC) Monarchy, had 7 kings, had a senate made up of the great political families at the time meant to advise kings. 
Political class in Rome made up of the powerful elite people 
Political class in Rome made up of the free non powerful non elite non foreign people 
Roman Republic
A common wealth, Liberty (freedom from arbitrary power), freedom to participate in public affairs 
When and why did the Plebeians leave Rome?
300 BC to negotiate rights for the people. 
Office of Tribune
Office established to keep the nobles in the senate in check 
Punic War I
Carthage closes ports to foreigners, Rome builds huge navy and defeats Carthage, signs twenty year treaty, Rome defeats Celts (Gauls) 
Punic War II
Hannibal arrives in Italy and causes destruction for 13 years then rome attacks carthage, forcing Hannibal back and wins. 
Punic War III
Carthage is destroyed, Rome continues expansion, Rome controls the Mediterranean sea. 
Fall of the Roman Republic
Farmers move to cities to be supported by the Government because grain prices are too low, slaves revolt, peasants revolt, military enlistment decreases, Military is failing all over the Republic 
Roman political party headed by the elite aristocrats, ruled by the elites 
Roman political party for the people ruled by the elites 
Julius Caesar
Does away with the Roman Republic, conquers Gaul, extends citizenship, increases senate, reduces debt, funds colonies, introduces julean calendar, becomes dictator for life, murdered by the senate, lover of cleopatra 
Roman Empire
Established by Octavian after he defeats Mark Anthony 
How did Rome Expand so effectively?
Military Ethos-most men served in the military, Populous agricultural base, shrewd dimplomacy, snowball effect of victory until non but the Parthians could withstand rome, masterful engineering, professional army, stopped expansion, regularized taxes 
Octavian (Augustus)
Grandson of Julius Caesar, first roman emperor, created a professional army, placated the elite, created a façade of a republic, brought peace to the empire 
Pax Romana
Period of peace in the roman empire brought by Octavian characterized by, interconnectivity, monarch-merchant nexus, latifundia systems. 
Good Emperor period
Long period of peace, Parthians threaten Rome, Germanic tribes threaten Rome, Second Great Jewish revolt 
Results of Second Jewish Revolt
Christianity spreads, Rabbinical Judaism 
Soldier Emperor period
Rome begins to lose control of its empire due to the misrule of its emperors, inflation, plague breaks out in Egypt, Germans tribes plunder Balkans, Gaul(France) and spain, financial crisis 
Roman ruler with the title Dominus, Peasants not educated, most Autocratic Rome has seen, façade of Republicanism, Revives the cult of Olympian Gods, Persecuted Christians, Creates the Tetrarchy 
Rule of four people established over the Roman Empire. Two rulers-Augusti, two assistant rulers-Caesars, one each for the East and West 
Embraces Christianity, encouraged religious freedom, united the roman empire, established church on sunday, does not stand for divided church. 
Donatist Controversy
The word comes from the ones who handed the scriptures to be burned 
Council of Arle
Called by Constantine to settle the Donatist Controversy 
Council of Nicaea
The first ecumenical council to settle the debate of the character of Christ 
Philosopher, the church and establishment of the empire was not a coincidence, salvation of human kind is found in the church and empire 
Three Pillars of Western Civilization
Roman Legacy, Institutional Christianity, Germanic Civilization 
Germanic Peoples
Inhabit most of Europe, Share a common Mythology, different tribal groups, didn't leave many records, poor, mostly illiterate, invaded western empire and took over, nomadic, raised livestock and hunted, ruled by chieftan families, Chiefs ruled by persuasion, king was temporary-not by divi…
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Roman Empire, Political heir of Rome, Cultural heir of Greece, spiritual heir of Christianity, Greek was official language, sees itself as the protector of Christianity 
Justinian I
(527-565 AD) Byzantine Emperor, spent most of the gold reserves of the emprie, attempted to bring back old roman empire, reconquered much of Roman empire, built Haggai Sophia, Bankrupted the empire, ordered the writing of the corpus Julis Cevilis-Law codes 
Sassanid Empire
New Persian Empire, constantly warring with Byzantines 
Started by Mohammed, pure monotheism, honesty, friendship, against too much wealth, holy book is Qua'ran, Muslims can't attack muslims, conquered the world to gain wealth from nonmuslims 
Germanic tribe, first to adopt Roman Christianity, ancestors of the Merovingians, warriors were elites, generous to loyal followers, government is focused on a local level. emphasized Christian piety 
First Frank king 
Charles Martel
Fought off the Muslim invaders, 2nd founder of the franks 
Pepin the Younger
Over threw the Merovingians, Established the Carolingians, supported the pope against the Lombards, gave the pope the Papal state, succeeded by Charlemagne 
Built a huge empire, almost always at war, goes to war with Saxons, very brutal, saw himself as a defender of Christianity, forced people to be Christians, wanted to create a unified german Christian empire, founded many schools, wanted to be seen as a scholar, divided his empire into cou…
Charlemagne's Title
Charles the most serene augustus, crowned by God, the greate and peaceful emperor who governs the Roman Empire and who is by the mercy of God the king of the Franks and Lombards. 
Last great nomadic invader group to set up in Europe, came from central asia, warriors, plundered Europe, defeated by Otto I, converted to Roman Christianity, seven different tribes, changed to farmers 
Who emerges after the fall of the Carolingians
5 duchy emerge, which are scared by Magyars, so they elect Henry I to be their leader, who is succeeded by Otto I 
Otto I
Defeats Magyars, takes lumbar crown, declared emperor by pope in 962 AD, reign marks the beginning of Holy Roman Empire, supports a scholarly renaissance, leaves Germany decentralized 
Commercial Revolution
Started because of the development of commercial cities, markets, and the great fairs, caused the church to push a pro poverty reaction, resolve lay investiture, and leads to a war that ends with spiritual authority being given to the church and temporal authority given to the king. 
Church reforms
Pro poverty, no more lay investiture, celibacy in the church leadership, pushes sacraments such as marriage 
Brought as a result of Muslim expansion, two theaters: western and eastern 
Western Crusades
Spain is invaded by the Amoravids, (berbers, sunni muslims), taken by the Almohads, and Fatimids, Spain was the last crusade 
Eastern Crusade
Mesopotamia and Byzantium 
First Crusade
Most participates were regular people not knights, knights do come, most successful, focused in the Holy Land, Take Jerusalem, Set up Crusader States, 
Second Crusade
Sparked by the aggression of Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi 
Third Crusade
Last real crusade, crusade of the three kings, Frederick Barbarossa-german king, Philip II-French King, Richard the Lion-hearted-English King, Never take back Jerusalem 
Fourth Crusade
Constantinople is pillaged by crusaders, Balkans are pillaged as well 
Fifth Crusade
tries to take Egypt, Fails 
Sixth Crusade
Jerusalem mostly ceded to crusaders 
Aborted due to plague, everything is taken back by muslims 
Legacies of Crusades
Image of westerners as Barbarous, east-west trade, crusade motif, crusaders' castles, Christian social position drops, permanently weakened Constantinople, Death, destruction, Anti-Semitism in Europe, Christian populations now suspect, centralization in Europe 
William the conquer
Duke of Normandy who took control of England through a brutal massacre, unites nobles under his rule, carries out an extensive survey called the Domesday survey used for taxing his subjects, built many castles, very good at systemized plunder 
Church Contribution to Western Civilization
Agriculture, university system, advances in science, preserved literature, network of model factories, methods in breeding livestock, modern legal system, charitable, cleared un-inhabitable land and turned it into rich farm land

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