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AMST-A 100 : EXAM 1

American Studies
4 main keywords: interdisciplinary, diverse, transnational, hemispheric
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America
A broader Americas-> nothing concrete, not just a land mass, but interconnected forces. The boundaries of America are drawn by race, class, gender, sexuality, etc. -Citizenship and democracy
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Interdisciplinary
More than one branch of knowledge
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Culture
-American culture is a melting pot of cultures -Diverse
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Nation
-not geographically defined -Constructed through social and cultural processes, not natural -Can be primarily created through print culture an the standardization of language -Emphasizes self-determination -Limited (do not consider all citizens) -Race, gender, sexuality, etc. factor into citizenship rights of people within a nation -Transnational expression of nationalism= spread across political borders
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Keywords
1. Important terms 2. Unlock mysteries 3. Changing
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Transnational
America is transnational, going beyond national boundaries, reaching to other areas of the world
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West Indies
-British West Indies: slaves here,
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Freedom
In 19th century, freedom= land ownership, goes hand-in-hand with place (see next card)
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Place
Multiple identities, experienced differently by different people, process rather than static location, not an enclosure with universal borders
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Chattel Slavery
Children who are born into slavery. Slavery= social death, economic death, lack of mobility, religion, and violence
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Enlightenment
-Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg address shows enlightenment ideas: new nation, liberty, all men created equal, new birth of freedom, government of the people, by the people, for the people -Ideas represented in visual culture and politics def: adopted ideas of individualism and creativity rather than tradition, a "natural" and "universal" movement-> move from traditional to more realistic ideas
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Free Labor
-An ideology that people want to work for themselves
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Social Death
Slaves unable to see family/friends, sold to different owners than their family members,
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Act of Abolition
-To abolish slavery
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Agency
Having the power to direct things in your own life
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Manifest Destiny
1840's-1850's: idea to take over the Pacific side
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Homestead Act
-related to land ownership/distribution
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Buffalo Soldiers
def: black soldiers that joined the army during the civil was and went out west after war
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Dawes Act
1887- dissolved communally owned land, distributed late 160 acre lots (similar to the Homestead Act) -nuclear families, citizenship for those who "adopted the habits of civilized life"
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Frontier Thesis
-Idea that progression and the countries democracy is formed from the frontier -"the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession (slowdown in economy), and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development"
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Union
-Confederates -Pro-slavery
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Chinese Exclusion Act
1882- Chinese no longer allowed into America-> Chinese immigration banned for ten years, extended to permanent ban in 1902, finally removed in 1965 -Chinese already in Amerca not granted citizenship
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Foreign Miners' Tax
Mexicans who lived in Mexico that suddenly came to United States (mostly California and Texas) after war were forced to pay this tax- prohibitions form testifying in Court, loss of land
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Avater
many argued that it was a modern day Pocahontas->an example of whites settling in the West
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Class
working class worked in factories that had extremely dangerous conditions-> including small children, unskilled workers, immigrants who didn't understand language who therefore did not understand instruction, rural folk
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Culture of Capitalism
-def of capitalism: private ownership, profits, markets, boom and bust (ex. housing market) -New habits, values, morality, ideals, temporality, family, geography, sexuality -Buying things we don't actually need to survive
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Industrial Revolution
-Early 20th century, mass production -Factories and workers migrate from countryside to cities, work no longer mixes with leisure (drinking a beer while on the job)-> now strictly work -Faster, cheaper, bigger output for means of production
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American Dream
-Making something of yourself in America -Ex. Ragged Dick: "Pull yourself up by the bootstraps"
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Time
Factory owners/people in general began to become obsessed with time efficiency-> resulted in alienation/ disconnection with real life - Many worked 12 hour-long shifts, considered normal
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Scientific Management
-involved taylorism->reduced wasted movements when swinging a hammer, results in faster production
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Minstrelsy
-Blackface minstrelsy: White people would put on black makeup and act as blacks Ex: Whites would dress up as country bums and do the Jim Crowe dance -Why did this become so popular? Because many whit working class were moving from countryside to industrial cities and they too longed to move back to countryside -Why was black makeup necessary? To appear that they aren't the ones who are bothered by the move, but the blacks are
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Modern Times
...
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Social Gospel
-Protestant churches= "Social Gospel" -A movement introduced by Protestant church to work in the Christian religion with social affairs of the time
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Urbanization
-Move from countryside to city->
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Immigration
-American food immigrated to Europe -Pograms: European urbanization (an idea adopted from American culture) -Industrialization in Western Europe -"American fever" all over the world: Everyone wanted to be like the US, similar feel as the American dream
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Nativism
-Defense and perpetuation of "native" population -Anti-immigrant, nationalistic -Ex: American Protective Association
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Whiteness
-Race is socially constructed, whiteness changes, inheritance of privileges, citizenship -Ex: Irish not considered "white" previously, but now considered white in modern times
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Reform
Bureaucracy, Rational, Scientific--> influenced by scientific idea about race, used to figure out how to be more efficient
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Eugenics
-Idea of improving the genetic quality of the human population
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Social Darwinism
-Defender of capitalism -John D. Rockefeller- the "best people" rise to the top naturally and they should lead us all
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Nationalism
-Idea of being attached/a part of one nation
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Print Culture
-People began to view themselves as part of a larger community because of the print -Print capitalism: print in 15th century aimed at Latin readers, but the market began to expand once other languages were translated
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Articulation of Difference
-measurements, science, categories, print create an illusion of a stable "reality" -17th, 18th, and 19th century: an obsession with creating the "standard" of "ideal" definitions of types of people -Example: Who deserves the rights of citizenship? -ex: male, female, white, black, etc. -To be the "namer" of something meant POWER
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Vertical Integration
def: shoe factory example--> buy sheep farm and rubber plantations (various means of production) to increase profit
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Horizontal Integration
def: Companies buy each other out-->squeeze out competition
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Cuba
-America was seen as the "big brother," trying to civilize Cuba, helped Cuba fight for their independence from Spain
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Colonialism
-Control by one power over another dependent power -US control over Cuba and "lesser" colonies
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New Imperialism
-Goal: new markets, raw materials, and military bases
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Berlin Conference
-America was not a prevalent country being represented at the Berlin Conference -More of a bystander because "important" countries like England, Spain, etc. would not allow the US to participate
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White Man's Burden
-The white man's responsibility to carry everyone on their back, paternalism interfere on nation's affairs
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Manliness
-Theodore Roosevelt -men= highly evolved and adult, assertive, control, fit
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Philippines
-Another main location where Spanish American War was fought,
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Propaganda
-def: fight for public opinion -George Creel: "The one way to form a steadfast, enduring public opinion is to inform it" -Relationship between propaganda and morale -Thomas Paine= MASTER propogandist
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Citizenship
-A key concept of the question "What is America?"
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Color Line
-the term used to describe the segregation in the United States after the abolition of slavery
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Diaspora
-Older def's: "mass, forced dispersal" -Newer def's: transnational, in motion, changing, routes rather than roots, "set of practices"-> linkages
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The New Negro
-assertive, urban, sophisticated, cosmopolitan
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Marcus Garvey
-Jamaican political leader -Black nationalism-> founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association, Harlem
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Kojo Tovalou Houenou
...
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Black Belt Thesis
...
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Advertising
-displayed large amount of info vs. now->small info with dramatic presentation and emotional appeal -Older ads= utility, large amount of text, informational- quality appeal to logic and reason -Modern ads= emotional, more presentable info, not how a product works (logic) but what it will do for you (emotions)
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PR (Public Relations)
-Became important during Pre World War I era
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Conspicuous Consumption
-def: spending money on goods simply so other people can see that you own them -Ex: buying multiple pairs of sheos to display your wealth
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Thorstein Veblen
Ostentations use of good or services to indicate wealth or social status
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Freud
-Psychoanalyst
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Frankfurt School
...
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Emotion
-Advertisements transitioned from an informational approach to a more emotional approach Ex. "This lipstick will make you prettier" rather than "this lipstick is composed of x, y, and z ingredients"
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New Women
-"Two Ford Family"-> Women now had mobility -Cigarettes: used to draw women in->"torches of freedom," connected with women's movement-> win/win situation for both women and cigarette company owners (such as Edward Bernays)
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Agency
-def: the capacity for human beings to make choices
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Engineering Consent
-How to convince people to change their buying habits?
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Fordism
-Two Ford Family idea
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Alienation from Modes of Production
-The process whereby the worker is made to feel alienated from the product they are producing
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Democratization of Desire
...
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A nation is ________ _____________.
socially constructed
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Limited nation=
-No nation encompasses all people
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Sovereign Nation=
-Nations strive for "freedom" and self determination
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Community nation=
conceived of as a comradeship of equals
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What is a nation-state?
A political entity that defines itself as a nation
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What was print capitalism like in the 15th century? How did it change?
-Aimed at Latin readers only-> only written in Latin -How it changed: new translations became available to many languages
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How did the print culture make people feel?
-Felt as part of a laurger community
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What does language provide?
-A powerful mean to root a nation to it's past -Suggests a link between contemporary society and its ancestors
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What was the Bayonet Constitution and when was it made?
-Made in 1887 -Dismissed legislature, took away native Hawaiian land rights, votes based on property ownership
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What was the attitude of the US before the US Age of Empire and after this age began (which was when)?
Before: domestic, contiguous expansion -After 1898: overseas expansion
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What did the Teller Amendment say?
-The US would aid Cuba for "liberty and freedom" from Spain
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When was Hawaii annexed? What does annex mean in this context?
-1898 -Gain control of, make a part of the United States
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Who were the Rough Riders?
-TR's soldiers during the Spanish American War
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What was going on with Puerto Rico During the Spanish American War?
-Turned into a low wage plantation economy -By 1920, among the poorest areas of the Caribbean -Residents were denied citizenship until 1917
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What were major events that happened in 1898, 1899, and 1903?
1898: July, US annexed Hawaii -1899: Open Door Policy-> America began exporting to China -1903: Involvement in Panama over canal
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What happened in Plessy v. Ferguson
-Idea of "separate but equal" was established -Color line
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Who was Zora Neale Hurston?
-Studied in the field of anthropology -Writer during the Harlem Renaissance
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