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Guilds
Lead to the development of universities
Reconquista
Series of struggles over the control of Spain, booted Muslims out of Spain
What were some inventions during the Reconquista?
Magnetic compass, eye glasses, spinning wheel
Chivalry
Code of knighthood
Gothic
Germanic and French artistic movement through architecture
What's the difference between Classical and Gothic art?
Classical: smooth, columns Gothic: Stain glass, big, religious
What is the significance of the Magna Carta?
The first time law is not arbitrary, and power is bounded by law
What are the 4 causes of the plague?
God Astronomical Earthquake Jews
Joan of Arc
French heroine, Lead French resistance to drive out England, Turns the tides for the French
What are the four ways to cure the plague?
God (beat yourself) Jews (High Hygiene) Earthquake (Pocket full of posies) (flowers) Astrology (stars)
Flagellant Movement
Cure to the plague; whip yourself b/c you have the plague to have God understand your pain, gets rid of the plague
Pogroms
Believed Jews poisoned the wells with the plague, Jews become scapegoat
What is the significance of the Great Schism
Two or three popes "Counsel of Pisa", Break in the Catholic Church
Who wrote "The Prince"?
Niccolo Machiavelli
What was "The Prince" about?
Tretious during Renaissance, Taught kings how to act in modern state during renaissance
Studia Humanitatis
Study of Humanities, grammar, history, poetry, University dominates scholasticism
Name one Artist in the Renaissance? And name one of his famous pieces.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Last Supper
What was the significance of the Printing Press?
Make books cheaper and allowed more access to them Knowledge and Spelling were standardized
What were some reasons why People explored to the New World?
Money and power Religion Middle man trade between Europe/Asia/Africa
Treaty of Tordesillas
Split of land between Portuguese and Spain
Triangular Trade
Exchange of plants, animals and slaves from new world to old world (vise versa)
Middle Passage
The trade of slaves from Africa to New World (America)
Caravel
Type of ship used to transport slaves to New world, very harsh conditions for slaves
(Colombian Exchange) What are 3 things that came from the new world to the old world?
Tobacco, chili, potato
What are 3 things that came from the old world to the new world?
Chicken poxs, bananas, cows
What's the significance of the Protestant Reformation?
Several sections of Christianity emerged
95 Theses
Martin Luther: explains why the practices in the church were corrupt, meant to be an academic discussion, criticized the practice of pluralism
What was the significance of the "95 Theses"?
It made the church irrelevant, broke the Catholic Church, Translation of the bible to (German)
Luther and the catholic church saw differently on the idea of faith? Describe how they differed.
Catholic Church: truth of God is beyond doubt Luther: Truth of God is not beyond doubt, trust in God's grace
What are the differences between John Calvin and Martin Luther?
Calvin: Christ spiritual in-bodied; predestination Luther: Transubstantiation(believe the Christ is present) is wrong
Predestination
God chose people to survive
What were the major changes in the Catholic Church?
Sola Fide: justification by faith alone Sola Scritura: all knowledge is necessary for salvation
What are grievances found in 95 theses?
Indulgences, Sacraments
What was the legacy of Islam?
Invented number 0, decimals, quadratic equation
What was the significance of Christopher Columbus?
Led to long history of native American conquest, disease, and slave labor
The Incas discovered what?
Romans South America
Cortez discovered what?
Aztecs
Why were the Jews persecuted during the Dark ages?
Weren't killed by plague because they had better hygiene , thought that they poisoned everyone else
Why was Joan of Arc executed?
Because she cross dressed
How did the Mongolians succeed in war? How did they fail?
Succeed: War technology Fail: successor died and mongolian army had to go back to emperor to elect new empire
Who was the 100 years between? How long did it last?
French/England (116 years)
What was the purpose of the Hundred Years War?
England King wanted French throne, nothing end up happening
Who were the first Europeans to discover the new world?
The Vikings
What was the significance of the Crusades?
Only war sanctioned by pope in western history
What was the crusades about?
Christians attempt to win back holy land from Muslim control
Who came up with the idea of Heliocentric model?
Copernicus
Who sought out elliptical orbits?
Keppler
Who used the telescope to confirm Heliocentric model?
Galileo
Who invented classical mechanics, laws of motion?
Newton
Humanism is what?
Development of human potential, value individual
Classicism is what?
Rebirth of classics ideas, (art)
Modern statecraft is what?
Countries as you think of them today
What did Luther not believe in, and was not in the bible?
Confession
What is conciliarism?
Counsel of church officials elects a pope for catholic church
Feudalism did what to Europe cities?
Decentralized; 3 sections
What are the 3 levels in Feudalism?
Lords: Land owners Vassals: mutual contract Fiefs: Inherit Land
Most holy building in Muslim religion?
Ka'ba
Who was the first person to venture into the Atlantic Ocean, for Portuguese expansion?
Henry the Navigator
How was the reformation of the Catholic Church made possible?
The Printing Press

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