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Organizational Communication
the study of sending and receiving messages that create and maintain a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people. Encompasses all elements of organization and accounts for employee and managerial experiences.
Messages
symbols exchanged between employees
structure
communication creates and recreates framework that impacts flow of information
process
ongoing interaction, past impacts future
behavior
act of exchanging messages
affective
emotions felt from interaction
cognitive
interpreting meaning
Misunderstandings
problems that occur in communication process
potential cause of misunderstanding
maximizing salary vs. minimizing cost
potential cause of misunderstanding
autonomy vs. commitment and constraint
potential cause of misunderstanding
job stability vs. organizational flexibility
potential cause of misunderstanding
creativity vs. efficiency
potential cause of misunderstanding
emotionality vs. rationality
Business communication
emphasis on developing and improving employee skill sets
managerial communication
focus placed on concepts and skills, managers need to fulfill responsibilities
corporate communication
emphasis on external image and communication of organizations to shareholders
1950's
when did organizational communication become a field?
hierarchy
vertical level of organization, distribution of authority among roles and positions
formalization
degree to which interactions in organization are characterized by rules, regulations, and norms
industrial revolution
brought about the introduction of classical management theories. people began to work together during this time period to be more efficient
Machine Metaphor
workers should be considered machines and part of a larger machine that is the organization
predictability
component of machine metaphor.  confidence in expected functioning
standardization
component of machine metaphor. easily found replacement
specialization
component of machine metaphor. each portion plays a precise role
Fredrick Taylor
"father of scientific management". Concerned with maximizing profit
systematic soldering
social pressure to perform less work and keep wages high
cause of systematic soldiering
workers belief that increased work would decrease work force
cause of systematic soldiering
piecework pay- employees paid set wages for production
cause of systematic soldering
rule of thumb method=poor training
scientific management in modern organizations
assembly lines, technology for surveillance and monitoring, tracking worker performance
Henri Fayol
developed the administrative theory
administrative theory
prescription for how management should function
scalar chain
principle of structure of the administrative theory that describes strict vertical hierarchy and communication
gangplank
principle of structure of the administrative theory and is the horizontal link between employees
unity of command
principle of structure of the administrative theory and says that orders are recieved from one supervisor. authority can never be undermined this way
unity of direction
principle of structure of the administrative theory similar activities means same manager
order
principle of structure of the administrative theory and says that all employees have specified roles and should be doing the right thing at the right time in the right place
division of work
principle of structure of the administrative theory that says that each worker has an individualized specialized job
centralization
principle of organizational power and means that decisions are made at the top of the hierarchy only
authority and responsibility
principle of organizational power and says that managers have power positions and must be able to give commands
discipline
principle of organizational power that says that employees should be obedient and listen to manager
remuneration of personnel
principle of organization reward and means that employees are paid fairly
equity
principle of organization reward says that employees are treated with justice and fairness
tenure stability
principle of organization reward that says that there is a guarantee of sufficient time period to be productive.
webers theory of bureaucracy
theoretically ideal and pure form of organization. had elements similar to taylor and fayol but was based more on theory than industrial experimentation
traditional authority
proposed by weber, this involves personal loyalty to the person in leadership, employees are loyal because of the legitimacy of the position of person in charge.
charismatic authority
leadership is achieved through influence and passion
rational legal authority
based on rational application of rules or laws, leaders achieve power based on skill and legitimacy. this is the preferred form of authority according to weber
Tenets of Bureaucracy
mechanisms dedicated to preserving and enhancing rational authority -rules-> plans to cover all possible future events. should be universalistic and impersonal -specified sphere of competence-> expectation of completing your job function and the authority or ability to do it -no owners…
human relations theory
shift in emphasis from task to worker, workers can meaningfully contribute, social relationships are recognized as heart of organization
Hawthorne studies
series of studies conducted at western electric compound that began the human relations theory
illumination study
study was conducted to test the effect of lighting intensity on worker production. this test was a failure because the optimum illumination was not found. the conclusion was that more investigation was needed
relay assembly test room study
5 women workers were studied to see if production would increase, it did not
bank wiring room observation study
study that resulted from the interviewing program
hawthorne effect
observing ones behavior leads to the increase in satisfaction and production
upward communication
the fact that workers are asked their opinions was enough to increase positive attitudes towards the company
theory x
classical theories assumptions that managers hold regarding their workers. 1. the average human being has a dislike of work and will avoid it if he can 2. most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the ac…
theory y
proposed by mcgregor and is competing assumptions of human nature to that of theory___. 1. the want to work is as natural as rest and play 2. external control and threat of punishment are not only means of bringing about effort. 3. commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards …
differences in human relations and human resources
1. human resource theory states that all people are "reservoirs of untapped resources" and managers must tap into this 2. human resources theory says that many decisions can be made much more efficiently by those workers who are most closely associated with their consequences. 3. increa…
system 1 explorative authoritative
rooted in classical theory this system is where managers tend to motivate their workers through fear, threats, punishment, and occasional reward
system 2 benevolent authoritative
motivation under this system is based partially on rewards and possibility for punishment, decision making is a little bit more flexible with policy decisions at top and less important decisions at lower
system 3 consultative
closely aligned with human resources. workers are motivated with rewards, occasional punishment and limited involvement in decision making and goal setting
system 4 participative
underscores the basic elements of the human resources theory. genuine participation in decision making, free flowing communication, full use of every workers ability and creativity, high concern for goals of organization. system is preferred by Likert
organism metaphor
an organization is viewed as a living organism in an environment that can turn inputs into outputs
equifinality
the same final state may be reached from different initial conditions and in different ways
systems approach different from classical approach
an open systems approach is different from a classical approach because it says that a final state may be reached in different ways and that there is more than one "best way" to do a job
differences between open and closed system approach
open system approach allows for different ways to complete a task whereas closed system approach only allows for on best way to do it
input
energic imports that help sustain the system
throughput
parts of the system transform the material or energy in some fashion
output
the system returns some product to the environment
contingency theory
first applications of systems concepts to organizations are now referred to as ___________. this theory states that there is no best way to run an organization, rather structure and management is contingent on the environment in which the organization is structured.
mechanistic systems
appropriate for a stable environement where there is little change or the change is predictable. these systems are characterized by specialization, centralization, clearly defined roles, and vertical communication.
organic systems
required in changing environments with unstable conditions, communication is both horizontal and vertical which tends to be in the form of consultation rather than orders
goals of critical theory
revealing how social and technological structures within organizations serve to oppress workers
historical framework of critical theory
BASED IN WORKS OF KARL MARX- interested in relationship between owners and workers in capitalist society. He viewed the system as inherently unfair and wanted workers to overthrow system, he believed in emancipation and freedom. Later progressed by the Frankfurt School which critiqued the…
common beliefs of critical scholars
-certain societal structures lead to power imbalances -power imbalances lead to alienation and oppression for certain goals -scholars uncover power imbalances and inform the oppressed group
power
imposing ones will on behavior of others, power is created and maintained in a variety of ways
approaches to power in a critical perspective
1. through an outright, explicit exercise of power 2. through an adherence to a work teams socially constructed norms
ideology
deeply held assumptions that guide behavior
four functions of ideology
...
concertive control
group members reinforce values and vision of upper management to guide behavior -form of unobtrusive control
technological panopticon
a way of keeping employees on their toes because they never know when a supervisor is watching and when they are not. -can be computer spyware and other things
critical theory and technology
technology is used to maintain the power of the elite few. this is done through tethering-> constant connection with organization through technology
employee resistance
defending and distancing oneself from power of organization
dissent
expression of disagreement of organization policies, practices, and operations

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