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sovereign state
Independent and free from all external control, enjoys full equality with other states; governs its own territory; selects its own political, economic, and social systems
anarchy
(n) a lack of government and law; confusion
hard power
The reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems.
soft power
The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.
national interest
a country determining its involvement in world affairs based ont he outcome or benefits it receives
perception
Becoming aware of something via the senses
schematic reasoning
the process by which new information is interpreted by comparing it to generic concepts stored in memory about certain stereotypical situations, sequences of events, and characters.
mercantilism era
an economic theory and practice, dominant in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century,[1] that promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.
peace of westphalia
1648 Ended the Thirty Years War; recognized Dutch Indepence, extended terms of the Peace of Augsburg to Calvinists, weakend the authority of the Holy Roman Empire; turning point in European political, religious, social history
domestic non interface
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pax britannia
period of peace in England where it is politically stable and experiences Industrial Revolution while making minor liberal changes in the gov't
hegemon
the domination of one state or group over its allies
colonial imperialism
the territory or colony is completely occupied and ruled by a foreign nation. Parent nation sets up government, controls economy, and imposes their lifestyle. ex. Americas
july crisis
A diplomatic crisis among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that led to the First World War.
triple alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
defense alliance
These are agreements in which nations pledge to come to each other's aid in case of attack.
triple entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
structuralism
An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components.
nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
rational choice theory
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives.
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
interwar period
The period between the 1919 end of WWI and 1939 beginning of WWII, shaped by the results of WWI and Great Depression.
league of nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
yalta conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
marshall plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
molotov plan
Nations of Eastern Europe would trade raw materials with the Soviet Union in exchange for manufactured goods.
cold war
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
mutually assured destruction
b (MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
berlin wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free wor…
domino theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
detente
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
social egoism
identify with a social group, you believe that your group is the best.
realism key assumptions
main focus on the systemic level
security dilemma
A situation in which actions taken by states to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states.
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
internal balancing
Concept of increasing the state's power resources in 4 ways: - strengthening armed forces & bottomw of economy - focusing policy on resource heavy regions - creating economic policy designed to produce relative gains - using military force when it maintains the state's prestige or reputat…
external balancing
Concept of altering the distribution of power abroad in 3 ways: -manipulating the system of interstate alliances -tolerate spheres of influence -weaken adversary states
status quo states
states satisfied with their existing level of power
revisionist states
these states want more power and generally adopt a policy of increasing their military forces
bandwagon
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
chain ganging
The creation of alliances which elevate the risk of a multinational conflict (e.g., WWI).
polarity
Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions.
realism and IR
'Conservative' response to liberal internationalism. Argues that liberals are blind to the realities of power politics. Assumes people behave selfishly. Focus on states and state power. Violence as ultima ratio. Key ideas are 'balance of power' and 'deterrence'.
thomas hobbes
..., English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
kenneth waltz
Theory of International Politics - pioneer of neorealism, relative gains, security dilema, zero sum interactions, only heirachy and anarchy are important structure.
prisoners dilemma
a particular "game" between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial
liberalism key assumptions
Its about individualism and reason. 2.) man is not perfect 3.) war is inevitable
low politics
the category of global issues related to the economic, social, and environmental aspects of relations between governments and people
democratic peace theory
Idea that democracies tend not to fight wars against one another and that the spread of democratic government can be the antidote to war in the international system
republican caution
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pacific union
kant's idea. eliminate war through transformation of system to all republican.
material incentives
Benefits that have a monetary value, including money, gifts, services, or discounts received as a result of one's membership in an organization.
liberalism in IR
1.) driven by competition & glory which lead to war. 2.) was not optimistic about human behavior, "said men are evil" 3.) Thomas Hobbes
constructivism
A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through reflection on experiences.
mutually constitutive
Mutually constitutive means that two things constitute one another: one forms an essential building block for the other and vice versa
intersubjectivity
Mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity
Indiviual, state, and global level of analysis
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