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HIST 106: Flashcards

Kellogg-Briand Pact
Also called the Pact of Paris; eventually included all nations; shunned war; actually had little effect
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Axis Powers
Italy, Germany, and Japan
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Neutrality Acts
Three acts: forbade selling munitions, lending money to belligerents in a war, remaining trade must be a cash-and-carry basis
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Lend-Lease
allows the president to sell, lend, lease, or transfew war materials to any country whose defense he declared as vital to that of the US
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Pearl Harbor
Japanese warplanes attacked US naval forces killing more than 2400 Americans
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D-Day
Allied troops crossed English Channel into France and opened a second front; D stands for disembarkation: to leave a ship and go ashore
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Nazi Holocaust
Slaughter of six millions Jews by Hitler's regime
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Yalta Conference
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed to final plans for the defeat of Germany; a significant diplomatic victory of the Soviets
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Manhattan Project
Top secret WWII program that produced the first atomic weapons
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Potsdam Conference
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed future of Europe; failed to reach agreements; led to the onset of the Cold War
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Iron Curtain
Refers to the boundaries in Europe that divided Soviet-domination (eastern and central) and free from Soviet control (western)
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Baruch Plan
American plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons; Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament without inspection doomed the plan and led to arms race
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Containment
The basic strategy of the US through the Cold War; believed American resistance to soviet expansion would eventually compel Moscow to adopt more peaceful policies; proposed by George Kennan
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Truman Doctrine
The US was committed to support free people everywehre who were resisting subjugation by communist attack or rebellion; used to aid the Greek and Turkish govts
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Marshall Plan
a program to rebuild the war-torn economies of western European nations
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
US and ten nations formed the military mutual-defense pact. Soviet Union countered with the Warsaw Pact
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Berlin Airlift
After the Soviets blockaded Berlin, the US supplied the two million Berlin citizens with food, fuel, and other goods by air for more than six months; also transferred planes capable of delivering a-bombs, but he was bluffing, but it worked
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National Security Act
Established the Department of Defense and created the CIA and National Security Council
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NSC-68
Committed the US to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union; stood as a symbol of the Truman administrations' determination to win the Cold War regardless of cost
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Taft-Hartley Act
Outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts; also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strickes that posed a threat to national security
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McCarthyism
Campaign against communists; become the contemporary name for the Red Scare
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Levittown
inexpensive homes in suburban NY to help relieve the postwar housing shortage; others built in Penn and NJ
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Baby Boom
Post WWII booming birth rate after the war
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Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
reversed the Plessy v Ferguson decision that established the "seperate but equal"; found segegration inherently unequal and left profound psychological damage to African American children, violating the 14th Amendment
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Montgomery Bus Boycott
Led by MLKJ; after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to move to the back of a bus
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Founded by MLKJ to direct the crusade against segregation; weapon was passive resistance
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Advocated black power (broke with MLKJ to advocate acts of violence) (used peaceful, confrontation)
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New Frontier
the campaign program advocated by JFK; promised to revitalized the stagnant economy
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Bay of Pigs
A group of Cuban exiles supported by the CIA landed in Cuba in an effort to overthrow Castro; ended in disaster
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Cuban Missile Crisis
US and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba
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Freedom Ride
Bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates; designed to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited segregation in interstate publis transportation
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March on Washington
Wanted to urge passage of JFK's civil rights bill; MLKJ gave his I Have a Dream speech
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War on Poverty
LBJ declared war on poverty in his State of the Union address; Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor
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Great Society
LBJ called his version of the Democratic reform program; including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education
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Medicare
provided Social Security funding for hospitalization insurance for people over age 65
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
effectively banned literacy tests for voting rights and provided for federal registrars to assure the franchise of minority voters
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Golf of Tonkin Resolution
LBJ persuaded Congress to pass a resolution giving him the authority to use armed force in Vietnam
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Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
popular college student organization that protested racial injustice and the Vietname War
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National Organization for Women (NOW)
called for EEO and equal pay for women; also called for legalization of abortion
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Tet Offensive
led LBJ to end the escalation of the Vietnom war and seek a negotiated peace
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Moral Majority
Revered Jerry Falwell founded this to combat "amoral liberties," drug abuse, coddling of criminals, homosexuality, communism, and abortion
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Neoconservatism
former liberals who advocated a strong stand against communism; stressed the positive values of American society
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Detente
Nixon and Kissinger's policy meaning a relaxation of tension
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Strategix Arms Limitation talks (SALT)
US and Soviet Union limited the deployment of ANTIBALLISTIC MISSILES (ABMs) and to freeze the number of offensive missiles for five years
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Watergate Scandal
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices; carried out under the direction of White House staff members; forced Nixon to resign to avoid impeachment
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
A cartel of oil-exporting nations; quadruple the price of oil
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Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
a measure deisgned to guarantee women equal treatment under the law; fell three states short of ratification
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Roe v Wade
women had a constitutional right to abortion in the early stages of pregnancy
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Camp David Accords
Carter mediated a peace agreement between the leaders of Egypt and Israel
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Iranian hostage Crisis
Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy and held 53 American dipolmats hostage for over a year; let them go the day Reagan became president
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Supply-Side Economics
claimed that tax cuts would stimulate the economy by giving individuals a greater incentive to earn more money, which would lead to greater investments and eventually larger tax revenues at a lower rate
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Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Known as Star Wars; proposed the construction of a computer-controlled, antimissile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer space
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Iran-Contra Affair
involved officials high in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran and using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua (oliver north)
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Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF)
Signed by Reagan and Gorbachev; this agreement provided for the destruction of all intermediate-range nuclear missiles and permitted onsite inspection for the first time during the Cold War
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Adolf Hitler
National Socialist, or Nazi movement; took Germany out of the League of Nations
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Benito Mussolini
Italian dictator; invaded Ethiopia
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All Quiet on the Western Front
Erich Maria Remarque; reminded people of the brutality of war
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American's Road to War
Walter Millis
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Start of WWII
Hitler invaded Poland; Roosevelt proclaimed neutrality
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The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Known as the White Committee; advocated unlimited assistance to England, short of war
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Tripartite Pact
Japan, Germany, and Italy signed the defensive treaty that confronted the US with a possible two-oceanwar
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How US entered WWII
Japan bombed Pearl Harbor; Roosevelt asked for declaration of war; only one dissenting vote, then Germany and Italy declared war on US
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Declaration of United Nations
Roosevelt and Churchill along with 26 other countries that pledged to fight until the Axis powers were defeated; later declared a policy of unconditional surrender
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General George Patton
drove Germany from Africa
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Battle of Midway
Japan lost four aircraft carriers; US only lost one; left US in control of Pacific
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Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC)
banned racial discrimination in war industries; also denied fed aid to any state that condoned segregation
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88th Division
Made up largely of Mexican American troops; known as Blue Devils
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Nisei
Native Born Americans whose ancestry was Japanese
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K1C2
Korea, communism, and corruption
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Baby and Child Care
Dr. Benjamin Spock
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On the Road
Jack Kerouac
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Beatniks
identified by their long hair and bizarre clothing; sexual promiscuitity and drug experimentation
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James Meredith
sought acceptance to an all white university; a mob attacked, but countered by National Guard; he graduated
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"The Johnson Treatment"
the ability to use persuasion to reach goals
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The Arrogance of Power
J. William Fulbright
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Timothy Leary
former harvard psychology prof who tried out the drug scene with pot and lsd
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Cesar Chavez
boycott of grapes; raised hourly wage of farmworkers
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The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
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Proposition 13
slashed property taxes in half
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Engel v Vitale
outlawed school prayer
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Negotiation with Hanoi
in return for release of all american prisoners of war, the US agreed to remove troops from south vietnam; ended up communist; proved vietname war was a total failure
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Six Day war
Israel and Saudi Arabia
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Women to Supreme Court
Reagan: sandra day o'connor Clintin: Ruth bader ginsburg
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Hyde Amendment
denied the use of federal funds to pay for abortions for poor women
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Stonewall Inn
In Greenwich villiage; gay bar
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"Outing"
releasing names of prominent gays, primarily politicians and movie stars
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"Don't ask, don't tell"
Clinton's idea...you could be in the military if you were gay and didn't say anything about it
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Matthew Shephard
a 21 yr old gay college student; victim of a hate crime
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Defense of Marriage Act
states did not ahve to recognize same-sex marriages performed elsewhere
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Pardoned Nixon
ford
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"National Malaise"
speech by carter blaming the american people
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"Misery Index"
dubbed by reagan; combined rate of inflation and unemployment
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Boland Amendment
prhobited any US agency from spending money in central america
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