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Kellogg-Briand Pact
Also called the Pact of Paris; eventually included all nations; shunned war; actually had little effect
Axis Powers
Italy, Germany, and Japan
Neutrality Acts
Three acts: forbade selling munitions, lending money to belligerents in a war, remaining trade must be a cash-and-carry basis
allows the president to sell, lend, lease, or transfew war materials to any country whose defense he declared as vital to that of the US
Pearl Harbor
Japanese warplanes attacked US naval forces killing more than 2400 Americans
Allied troops crossed English Channel into France and opened a second front; D stands for disembarkation: to leave a ship and go ashore
Nazi Holocaust
Slaughter of six millions Jews by Hitler's regime
Yalta Conference
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed to final plans for the defeat of Germany; a significant diplomatic victory of the Soviets
Manhattan Project
Top secret WWII program that produced the first atomic weapons
Potsdam Conference
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed future of Europe; failed to reach agreements; led to the onset of the Cold War
Iron Curtain
Refers to the boundaries in Europe that divided Soviet-domination (eastern and central) and free from Soviet control (western)
Baruch Plan
American plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons; Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament without inspection doomed the plan and led to arms race
The basic strategy of the US through the Cold War; believed American resistance to soviet expansion would eventually compel Moscow to adopt more peaceful policies; proposed by George Kennan
Truman Doctrine
The US was committed to support free people everywehre who were resisting subjugation by communist attack or rebellion; used to aid the Greek and Turkish govts
Marshall Plan
a program to rebuild the war-torn economies of western European nations
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
US and ten nations formed the military mutual-defense pact. Soviet Union countered with the Warsaw Pact
Berlin Airlift
After the Soviets blockaded Berlin, the US supplied the two million Berlin citizens with food, fuel, and other goods by air for more than six months; also transferred planes capable of delivering a-bombs, but he was bluffing, but it worked
National Security Act
Established the Department of Defense and created the CIA and National Security Council
Committed the US to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union; stood as a symbol of the Truman administrations' determination to win the Cold War regardless of cost
Taft-Hartley Act
Outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts; also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strickes that posed a threat to national security
Campaign against communists; become the contemporary name for the Red Scare
inexpensive homes in suburban NY to help relieve the postwar housing shortage; others built in Penn and NJ
Baby Boom
Post WWII booming birth rate after the war
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
reversed the Plessy v Ferguson decision that established the "seperate but equal"; found segegration inherently unequal and left profound psychological damage to African American children, violating the 14th Amendment
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Led by MLKJ; after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to move to the back of a bus
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Founded by MLKJ to direct the crusade against segregation; weapon was passive resistance
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Advocated black power (broke with MLKJ to advocate acts of violence) (used peaceful, confrontation)
New Frontier
the campaign program advocated by JFK; promised to revitalized the stagnant economy
Bay of Pigs
A group of Cuban exiles supported by the CIA landed in Cuba in an effort to overthrow Castro; ended in disaster
Cuban Missile Crisis
US and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba
Freedom Ride
Bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates; designed to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited segregation in interstate publis transportation
March on Washington
Wanted to urge passage of JFK's civil rights bill; MLKJ gave his I Have a Dream speech
War on Poverty
LBJ declared war on poverty in his State of the Union address; Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor
Great Society
LBJ called his version of the Democratic reform program; including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education
provided Social Security funding for hospitalization insurance for people over age 65
Voting Rights Act of 1965
effectively banned literacy tests for voting rights and provided for federal registrars to assure the franchise of minority voters
Golf of Tonkin Resolution
LBJ persuaded Congress to pass a resolution giving him the authority to use armed force in Vietnam
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
popular college student organization that protested racial injustice and the Vietname War
National Organization for Women (NOW)
called for EEO and equal pay for women; also called for legalization of abortion
Tet Offensive
led LBJ to end the escalation of the Vietnom war and seek a negotiated peace
Moral Majority
Revered Jerry Falwell founded this to combat "amoral liberties," drug abuse, coddling of criminals, homosexuality, communism, and abortion
former liberals who advocated a strong stand against communism; stressed the positive values of American society
Nixon and Kissinger's policy meaning a relaxation of tension
Strategix Arms Limitation talks (SALT)
US and Soviet Union limited the deployment of ANTIBALLISTIC MISSILES (ABMs) and to freeze the number of offensive missiles for five years
Watergate Scandal
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices; carried out under the direction of White House staff members; forced Nixon to resign to avoid impeachment
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
A cartel of oil-exporting nations; quadruple the price of oil
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
a measure deisgned to guarantee women equal treatment under the law; fell three states short of ratification
Roe v Wade
women had a constitutional right to abortion in the early stages of pregnancy
Camp David Accords
Carter mediated a peace agreement between the leaders of Egypt and Israel
Iranian hostage Crisis
Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy and held 53 American dipolmats hostage for over a year; let them go the day Reagan became president
Supply-Side Economics
claimed that tax cuts would stimulate the economy by giving individuals a greater incentive to earn more money, which would lead to greater investments and eventually larger tax revenues at a lower rate
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Known as Star Wars; proposed the construction of a computer-controlled, antimissile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer space
Iran-Contra Affair
involved officials high in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran and using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua (oliver north)
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF)
Signed by Reagan and Gorbachev; this agreement provided for the destruction of all intermediate-range nuclear missiles and permitted onsite inspection for the first time during the Cold War
Adolf Hitler
National Socialist, or Nazi movement; took Germany out of the League of Nations
Benito Mussolini
Italian dictator; invaded Ethiopia
All Quiet on the Western Front
Erich Maria Remarque; reminded people of the brutality of war
American's Road to War
Walter Millis
Start of WWII
Hitler invaded Poland; Roosevelt proclaimed neutrality
The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Known as the White Committee; advocated unlimited assistance to England, short of war
Tripartite Pact
Japan, Germany, and Italy signed the defensive treaty that confronted the US with a possible two-oceanwar
How US entered WWII
Japan bombed Pearl Harbor; Roosevelt asked for declaration of war; only one dissenting vote, then Germany and Italy declared war on US
Declaration of United Nations
Roosevelt and Churchill along with 26 other countries that pledged to fight until the Axis powers were defeated; later declared a policy of unconditional surrender
General George Patton
drove Germany from Africa
Battle of Midway
Japan lost four aircraft carriers; US only lost one; left US in control of Pacific
Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC)
banned racial discrimination in war industries; also denied fed aid to any state that condoned segregation
88th Division
Made up largely of Mexican American troops; known as Blue Devils
Native Born Americans whose ancestry was Japanese
Korea, communism, and corruption
Baby and Child Care
Dr. Benjamin Spock
On the Road
Jack Kerouac
identified by their long hair and bizarre clothing; sexual promiscuitity and drug experimentation
James Meredith
sought acceptance to an all white university; a mob attacked, but countered by National Guard; he graduated
"The Johnson Treatment"
the ability to use persuasion to reach goals
The Arrogance of Power
J. William Fulbright
Timothy Leary
former harvard psychology prof who tried out the drug scene with pot and lsd
Cesar Chavez
boycott of grapes; raised hourly wage of farmworkers
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
Proposition 13
slashed property taxes in half
Engel v Vitale
outlawed school prayer
Negotiation with Hanoi
in return for release of all american prisoners of war, the US agreed to remove troops from south vietnam; ended up communist; proved vietname war was a total failure
Six Day war
Israel and Saudi Arabia
Women to Supreme Court
Reagan: sandra day o'connor Clintin: Ruth bader ginsburg
Hyde Amendment
denied the use of federal funds to pay for abortions for poor women
Stonewall Inn
In Greenwich villiage; gay bar
releasing names of prominent gays, primarily politicians and movie stars
"Don't ask, don't tell"
Clinton's could be in the military if you were gay and didn't say anything about it
Matthew Shephard
a 21 yr old gay college student; victim of a hate crime
Defense of Marriage Act
states did not ahve to recognize same-sex marriages performed elsewhere
Pardoned Nixon
"National Malaise"
speech by carter blaming the american people
"Misery Index"
dubbed by reagan; combined rate of inflation and unemployment
Boland Amendment
prhobited any US agency from spending money in central america

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