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Fatty acids, Triacylglycerols, Wax esters, Phospholipids, Sphingolipids, Isoprenoids
Name the Six Classes of Lipids
Monocarboxylic acids that contain hydrocarbon chains
What is a fatty acid?
TAGs and membrane bound lipids
In what two places can you find fatty acids?
even, unbranched
Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a(n) ____ number of carbons that form a(n) ____________ chain.
Only single C-C bonds
What is a saturated fatty acid?
One or more double bonds
What is an unsaturated fatty acid?
Mainly found in CIS conformation, cannot pack tightly together, lower melting point, liquid at room temp, susceptible to oxidation
Describe five characteristics of unsaturated fatty acids.
Prostaglandins, muscle contraction
Name a type of eicosanoid and a role they play.
Esters of glycerols with fatty acid molecules
What are triacylglycerols (TAGs)?
Covalent bonds (no charge, considered neutral fats)
How are TAGs joined?
Fats: solid at room temp (many sat. fatty acids) Oils: liquide at room temp (many unsat. fatty acids)
What are the two names TAGs are referred to as? Describe.
Storage and insulation
Name two functions of TAGs.
Hydrophobic (coalesce into droplets), need only 1/8 the volume as glycogen bc they are anhydrous, more reduced which lets them release more energy when degraded.
Give three reasons why TAG is better at storing energy than glycogen.
Complex mixtures of non polar lipids
What are waxes?
Long chain f.a. and alcohols. Beeswax.
What are wax esters?
Structural component of membranes, emulsifiers and surfactants
Name two functions of phospholipids.
Polar head group (phosphate), hydrophobic tail (fatty acid chains)
Describe the structure of phospholipids.
Phosphatidic acid. Precursor for all other phosphoglycerides.
What is the simplest phosphoglyceride? What is it's purpose?
Attach proteins to external surface of plasma membranes via amide linkage.
What is the function of GPI anchors?
Four fused rings
Structure of steroids.
Cell membrane component, precursor of steroid hormones and bile salts.
Describe cholesterol (it is a steroid).
Phospholipids form a bilayer.
Structure of membranes?
Number of unsaturated fatty acids.
What determines membrane fluidity?
Stability, but has incomplete penetration and a flexible tail.
What does cholesterol contribute to the membrane?
Lateral
What type of diffusion is responsible for many functions in membranes?
non-specific, energy independent
Scramblase is ___-_____ and ______ _______.
Flippase (OUT to IN), Floppase, Scramblase
Name the three enzymes involved in transverse diffusion.
Each side of the bilayer is different.
Describe the membranes asymmetry.
Integral: embedded  Peripheral: bound by non covalent forces
Name the two types of proteins found in the membrane.
Simple, facilitated. Move with the concentration gradient.
Name two types of passive transport.

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