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s,p,d,f
Shells are broken into subshells:
Orbital
Is the region of space that holds 2 electrons
Electron configuration
Is a description of electrons in orbitals (number and where)
Ground state configuration
Is the lowest energy configuration you can have.
Aufbau Principle
GSC rule that you fill the orbital from lowest energy to the highest energy
Pauli Exclusion Principle
GSC rule that there are only 2 electrons per orbital. The spins are paired opposite.
Hund's rule
GSC rule that you add 1 electron to each orbital equal in energy. (Minimized electrostatic repulsion)
Valence electrons
The outer/last shell of electrons.
Octet rule
The 2nd row of elements want 8 electrons (noble gas status)
Anion
Gain 1 electron
Cation
Lose 1 electron
Ionic
Chemical bond to lose or gain an electron is to become ______.
Covalent
A chemical bond formed between atoms by sharing electron pairs.
Ionic or Covalent
2 bond ways to complete an octet:
Lone pairs
nonbonding pairs of electrons
Polar
A characteristic where atoms do not share electrons equally.
Electronegativity
Use _________ to predict polar or nonpolar.
Formal charge
Is determined by = the (# of valence es)-(# of e lone pairs)- 1/2 (shared)
Multiple bonds
Atoms sharing more than just 2 electrons.
Double bonds
2 atoms share 4 electrons.
Triple bonds
2 atoms share 6 electrons.
VSEPR
We predict bond angle by "valence shell electron pair repulsion"
Tetrahedral 109.5
4 regions of electron densities gives a ________ shape with a bond angle of ______
Pyramidal
A tetrahedral with 1 lone pair gives the ______ shape.
Bent
A tetrahedral with 2 lone pairs gives the _______ shape.
Trigonal planar 120
3 regions of electron densities gives a ___________ shape with a bond angle of _______
Linear 180
2 regions of electron densities gives a _________ shape with a bond angle of _____
Major contributers
Of resonance Include 1). filled octets, 2). least separation of unlike charges (or neutral), 3). maximum number of covalent bonds, and 4). negative charge is the more electronegative atom.
Electron density
Is the probability of where you will find electrons.
Quantum mechanics
Is the idea that the properties of electrons are best explained by treating electrons as waves not particles.
Traveling and standing
The 2 types of waves:
Wave function
Is math that describes waves.
Mixing
Constructive and destructive wave functions are called ______
Constructive
Add orbitals
Destructive
Subtract orbitals
Add
Orbitals "in phase.."
Subtract
Orbitals "out of phase.."
Pi* Pi
____ is higher in energy than __.
4sp^3
(Tetrahedral) 1s + 3p =
3sp^2
(Trigonal planar) 1s + 2p =
2sp
(Linear) 1s + 1p =
S character
The greater the percent of ________, the shorter the bond.
Homolytic cleavage
Bond breaking in which the bonding electron pair is split evenly between the products
Heterolytic
Bond breaking in which both electrons remain with only one part
Hydrocarbon
Naming where there the molecule only contains carbon and hydrogen
Alkanes
A type of hydrocarbon where it is saturated. Every carbon has the max number of Hs (and no double bonds)
-ane
Suffix of alkanes
Alkenes
A type of hydrocarbon, where it is unsaturated. Also has one or more double bond
-ene
Suffix of alkenes
Alkynes
A type of hydrocarbon where there is one or more triple bond
-yne
Suffix of alkynes
Aromatic
A type of hydrocarbon that has rings and stuff
Functional Groups
A naming for carbon and other atoms.
Alkylhalides
Is an alkane but in replace of a H there is a F, Cl, Br, or I.
C that halide
Classifying of a Alkylhalide is based on ________ is attached to.
primary, secondary, tertiary
Classifying sections: 1, 2, 3 (for alkylhalides, alcohols, amines, esters,
Alcohols
Naming of OH hydroxyl group bonded to an sp3 carbon.
Ethers
Naming of oxygen bonded to 2 different alkyl groups
Amines
Naming of an amino group? Nitrogen is bonded to 1, 2, or 3 carbons by a single bond.
Ammonia
The exception to amines. Nitrogen is attached to 3 Hs not Cs
Aldenhydes and Ketones
Naming, both contain a carbonyl group.
Aldenhyde
Naming with a carbonyl bonded to 1 H and 1 C
Formaldehyde
Exception to the Aldenhydes. CH2O - not 1 H and 1 C but 2 Hs
Ketone
Naming with carbonyl bonded to 2 Cs
Carboxylic Acid
Naming where molecule contains COOH. This is acetic acid
Acetic acid
COOH
Formic acid
A carboxylic acid that has H, it is CO2H2
Esters
Naming of a derivative of carboxylic acid. Replace OH with amine compound
Nitriles
Naming of a simple carbon to nitrogen
Reaction Mechanism
Is a description of molecular events as reactants become products
Bronstead base
A substance that accepts a proton, H+ acceptor
Bronstead acid
A substance that gives up a proton, H+ donor
Source
The arrow in "arrow pushing" starts where the electron is found:
Sink
The arrow in "arrow pushing" points to where the electron ends up:
products/reactants
Keq or the equilibrium constant is:
Weaker
A larger pka ---> ______ acid (strength)
Stronger
A smaller pka ---> _____ acid (strength)
Stronger
Weak acid (made into conjugate base) ---> _______ conjugate base (strength)
Weak
Strong acid (made into a conjugate base) ---> _______ conjugate base (strength)
Equilibrium
_______ lies toward the weakest acid
Stability conjugate base
The _______ of the _______ determines acidity
More
The more stable the conjugate base is the ___ acidic
Increase
Increase in the elctronegativity is an ______ in acidity
Increase
Larger the atom, the ______ in acidity
Increase
An increase in s character (by hybridization) is an _____ in acidity
Ion-ion force
A strong electrostatic force between positive and negative atoms
Van der waals
Forces (or interactions) between molecules
Dipole-dipole
A type of van der waals reaction when molecules are polar
Hydrogen bonding
A type of van der waals interaction where H bonds with N, O, and F. it is weaker than covalent bonds.
London dispersion
A type of van der waals interaction where it is non-polar. Attraction results from interaction between temporary, induced dipoles. Very weak.

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