POLS 207: EXAM 2

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POLS 207
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what kind of graph are political views on?
Bell Curve
What causes less voter turnout?
Less competition
where are independents on the bell curve?
in the middle
Proactive government
expect state programs efforts will be positively correlated with good results (education)
Reactive Government
expect state efforts will be negatively correlated with good results (crime)
Traditionalistic
rests on "normal" ordering of society those of wealth and position expected to rule and have their property protected by the govt, govt has no other major function; it is certainly not for govt to address social ills found primarily in the south, brought over from Engl...
Moralistic
good govvt, promoting the public goods of honesty and selflessness, and govts serving God's purpose found along the N. border in a belt from Maine to Oregon, brought over from Protestant idealists from Northern Europe
Individualistic
emphasizes the conception of the democratic order as a marketplace govt was to be won and to serve those who won it found in a belt of states from Mass through US industrial heartland, created from a combo of diff settlers from all diff places in Europe
Characteristicsto Republican form of govt
public is supposed to vote in elections at the min elections are supposed to be competitive, allowing voters a choice the public policy preferences the voters vote for are supposed to be adopted by elected officials substantial differences among the states for all...
Participation in Elections
voting= most often how citizens participate voter turnout rates are different for every state young, poor, uneducated are most likely to not vote low voter turnout: south, ny, arizona voter turnout--linked to political culture as voters in Moralistic states h...
Liberals and Conservatives
definitions based on preferred role of govt, size of govt, fiscal/monetary policies, social policies, foreign policy end of the 20th century until 2012, US= much more conservative has not proven itself in changes of policy or party preferences---Obama won 2012 ...
Democratic & Republican Legislatures
pattern that the percentage of Republicans in the upper house is highly related to the percentage of republicans in the lower house in states (.92) 45 states: one party is in control of both legislative houses (28 R controlled, 17 D controlled) 25 states: party in cont...
Is Nebraska bicameral or unicameral?
unicameral
Length of Sessions in State Legislature
length of sessions and how often they meet vary considerably over the states a few states meet continuously it is argues that legislatures should meet continuously to give enough time to develop good policy believed states w/ more business interests & complex econ...
Voting Methods in US
varies widely bc voting machines paid for by counties (rich counties have better machines) electronic voting is now the norm, but backup plans are suggested because electronics can fail no federal laws because elections are state, not federal
Election of 2000 voting issues
Florida-punch card ballots traditionally did not count about 3% of votes bc of errors
Minnesota voting policy for recounts
Minnesota has a policy to where it will recount all votes in the state: tested in 2008
3 types of polical culture posited by Daniel Elazar
traditionalistic moralistic individualistic
Most common form of political participation? How does TX rank?Why?
Voting, Texas ranks low because we have a high amount of young, poor, and uneducated who don't vote
How can a political party lose a statewide presidential election yet win more than half of congressional elections contested at the same time?
split ticket voting: vote diff for Pres & Congress gerrymandering
Does the strong positive correlation between days of state legislative sessions and number of bills introduced tell us which variable causes the other?
No, because though the relationship is strong, we cannot tell one causes the other because of the arguments involving reactive and proactive governments.
is divided or unified party control the norm? has this always been the case?
unified now, not always the case
Why does the diff in voting equipment used in the states suggest about how the states might differ in how accurately votes are tallied?
poor states: older equipment=more likely to have mistakes
No Government Period basis
1776-1850 avg citizen-subsstence farmer & could expect to live life with little or no contact w/ govt "self dependence", "sense of community", the best govt was the least govt" were ideals of this period if one had contact w govt it was for taxes or jail
Central Ideas of No Govt Period
families=self depended, but you can count on your neighbors, strong sense of community govt is not an institution to turn to when there is trouble, contact with govt usually causes adverse affect--best govt=least govt govt should do what it has traditionally done, very...
Municipal Govt Period
1850-1895-population growth and urbanization urbanization, families can't provide all services lost sense of community needed govt for basic service: public health, safety codes, crime govt to help w problems should be local bc "closest to ppl" rise of p...
Central Ideas for Municipal Govt Period
govt can help solve problems, esp local govt, closest to people candidates more likely to gain voter support if they promise certain actions if elected those who win public office can make decisions affecting everyone-elections matter machines taught that by being...
State Intercity Govt
1895-1932 older families lost power bc new immigrant political machines take over cities---resentful want to reform city/get rid of corruption civil service system "changed the arena of conflict" Dillon Rule
Central Ideas from the State Intercity Govt Period
state govt could also become active, many probs were forcing such govts to become active sought to undo urban machines using state govt to pass laws shaping municipal elections (forced under Dillon Rule) decline of urban machines--led to belief that laws can shape beha...
Changing the arena of conflict
old families couldn't with local elections, started winning state elections, took away power from party bosses (secret ballots, etc.)---cities do what the state says
Dillon Rule
A principle holding that local governments are creations of state government and their powers and responsibilities are defined by the state
Federal Govt Era
1932-present Great Depression & WW2--increased scope of federal responsibilities Fed spending increased greatly Fed income tax generated tremendous revenue govt responsible for protecting people from economic hardship, old age, environment, safety, education,...
Central Ideas from Fed Govt Era
govt should take responsibility to soften economic hardships, help us in our old age & assure health coverage natl defense/internatl involvement=responsibilities of natl govt natl standards for discrimination, food, drug standards, porn, car safety & even quality of ed...
Unitary Govt
system of govt where all functions of govt are controlled by the central/natl govt, regional govts are subservient to the central govt
Confederacy
system that divides power between a national govt and regional govts w regional govts having the most power
American Federalism
division of powers btw a national govt and regional govts establishes at least two govts for each individual---balances power btw state & natl govt (Supremacy Clause)
Enumerated (delegated) powers
powers expressly granted in the Const, there are 16 of them strict constructionist: belief fed govt can do no more than these enumerated powers
Necessary and Proper Clause (elastic clause)
"loose constructionist" would argue there are implied powers not specifically in the Const, but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out the delegated powers (17th Am.)
Intersate Commerce Clause
article in US Const that gives Congress the exclusive power to regulate commerce btw states originally interpreted that you and to be trading across state lines later: any chain of manufacture counts
Reserved Powers
powers not granted to the national govt or specifically denied to the states are reserved to the states and people respectively under the 10th amendments-----gives power to states
Full faith and credit clause
requires states to recognize the laws and judicial acts of other states (divorce & marriage)
Due process and equal protection clause
requires states to treat all citizens equally (14th)
Privileges and Immunities clause
means that states have to grant to nonresidents the same privileges and immunities that they accord to their residents (75 mph speed limit applies to everyone that comes into state)
Rendition or Extradition Clause
if a person charged w a crime flees to a mother state, the state he fled to will return him if the original state requests
Judicial Review
Marbury v. Madison (1803): Supreme Ct review contradiction in the constitution and the laws of the land determine what is constitutional Sup Ct could be ignored because it has no enforcement capability, but this seldom happens
Garcia v. San Antonio Metro Transit Authority
1985- Sup Ct made ruling that is sure to continue US Centralization of power to fed govt Sup Ct said there are no traditional areas of state governing Congress-made up of citizens from states, if they recognize traditional areas then they will continue, but if congress...
Constitutions that predate the US Constitution
New Hampshire, Massachusetts
until 1870 period of Const. writing
brief, usually about 10000 words legislature dominated weak governors
1780-1870 period of Const. writing
strengthened executive as balance to legislature, bc neither could be trusted veto power to appoint officials (strengthened governors)
1870-1920 Const. writing period
result of Civil War- all Southern states except Tenn, wrote and rewrote sev Consts. 1861: sub Confederate for United, secession constitutions 1864 or 65: reverse previous action to be readmitted under Pres. Reconstruction 67 or 68: enact constitutions required by ...
1874-1902 writing of Const
Post reconstruciton constitutions, return power back to wealthy whites who controlled govts before Civil War Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise blacks racial segregation lengthy and detailed weak legislature & governors, give power to people many amendments
1945-present writing of Consts
reduced in size revised instead of redrafted removed archaic laws strengthening governors and legislatures
Amending State Constitutions
all states except Delaware have a 2 step process to amend their constitution, proposal, and ratification--most states require a 2/3rd majority in legislature to propose then a simple majority of voters to ratify
explain major differences between state and federal constitutions
state: long and detailed w/ more amendments federal: short and vague
Origin of best govt is the lest govt? Has anything of importance changed since then?
No government period There are very few subsistent farmers now, expect government to do way more
Why does the Federal constitution take precedence over state constitutions? how does this relate to federalism?
it is in the constitution that the federal government is the supreme law of the land--supremacy clause
Explain how the decisions of the US Sup Ct led to the current development of American Federalism
Supreme Court makes rule on how Federalism moves forward
How did the federal income tax and "deficit spending" increase the power of the federal govt?
Money=power, so federal govt can force states to comply with what they want through conditions that come with borrowing money
How and why did rural political interests dominate state politics? How and why did this change?
malportionment: districts are different sizes, causing voting to be unfair Baker v. Carr: have to redraw state lines (at least every 10 years with the census)
What is the correlation between he number of words and number of amendments in state constitutions?
positive
What is related to the No Govt Period?
subsistence farming life free of govt interference rural communities with a few small cities self dependence
What is an idea that sprang form the Municipal Govt Period?
Local govt can help to solve problems because it is closest to the people
The two events that led to the Fed. Govt. Era
The Great Depression, WW2
opinions of people of taxes & services
34% keep services & lower taxes 10% increase services and raise taxes 36% keep services and taxes about the same 19% not sure
opinion of the people on taxes
56% said federal income tax too high respondents said max percent a person should pay in all taxes = 15.6% or $7635
opinion of people on how tax system works
85% said fed. taxes somewhat/very complex 82% said fed tax system needed major changes or a complete overhaul fewer than half willing to give up some federal tax deduction in exchange for across the board cut in fed tax rate
opinions on fairness of federal, state, and local taxes
on scale of 1 to 5 (1=very fair/5=very unfair) respondents rated taxes of all levels of govts an avg of 3.4 inconsistent: Americans say taxes are too high, but rate them generally fair; want simpler system, but not willing to give up their tax deduction
How do govts pay bills?
current revenues surpluses borrowed funds debts must eventually be paid off
How do politicians promise to both lower taxes and keep services?
by making the government more efficient
Services cost vs. product cost
Products sometimes cost less over time, but government not providing products, it provides services it is unrealistic to assume services can significantly improve and cost less at the same time
user or client pay
individuals pay for any goods or services that they receive
ability to pay
taxes gathered on ability to pay and the services are provided to all who are eligible taxes based on the ability to pay redistribute the wealth of the rich to the poor
redistribution policy
through govt money is redistributed from the wealthy in taxes to the poor in services tax policy discussions always involve self interest, the wealthy try to reduce taxes and move more services to user pay, the poor try to have taxes pay for more services they receive
What basis is public education paid for on?
ability to pay basis bc of concern about consequence of failing to educate the poor ability to pay educational expenses is distributed district wide districts vary in wealth so education quality varies
Inequitable resources for education
unconstitutional, forces states to take up more of the cost
excludable goods/services
service that can be metered to determine when used and can be excluded to those who do not pay
private goods
goods or service in use by one person, cannot be used by a second person (just one consideration of private goods)
non rivaling
a service that everyone can use without denying to others, most economist say should be public good, clean air and water
Market Failure
occurs when potential customers think they can benefit w/o paying or should not have to pay for receiving benefits -----only by making payments mandatory can goods and services be provided in quality and quantity
Merit Good
could be private but we want to give it to people (education)
How much does the avg American spend on various taxes?
30% of income----lower than most countries
Property Tax
taxes on real property, land and permanent improvements, oldest tax, originally based on barter to pay bc subsistence farmers had no money flat rate tax: pay the same rate regressive tax incidence: poor pay a greater percentage of their income bc some of the ...
Income Tax
tax on income progressive: if tax rate increases as taxable income increases 43 states have personal income tax---of 7 who do not tax personal income, 4 have corporate income tax 39 states have progressive tax, other 4 have one fixed or flat rate for all taxable incomes
Taxable Income
once your tax deductions are taken out of your total income, you have your taxable income capital gains a form of income tax--tax on crease in value of investment when sold---taxed at lower rate than income tax
Sales Tax
flat rate tax on goods purchased, usually regressive bc many items the wealthy buy are excluded
Tax Base
what is subject to tax (property, income, sales being taxed)
Tax Burden
tax bill divided by total income
tax shifting
ability to pass cost of taxes to others to pay (renters pay landlords property tax in rent)
tax incidence (tax application)
which income groups are paying more and which income groups are paying less of their income in income taxes
neutral tax incidence
when the bills for all taxpayers are the same proportions of their ability to pay
progressive tax incidence
those with greater ability to pay are taxed a larger proportion than those with lesser ability to pay
regressive tax incidence
those with the lowest ability to pay are taxed a larger proportion than those with greater ability to pay
Relation of state dependency on sales tax to dependence on income tax
negative: -.47
Relation of state reliance on sales tax to reliance on property tax
negatively: -.35
Relation between property taxes and income taxes in 2010
no empirical relationship
Severance Tax
tax paid by producers or extractors of certain minerals (oil, coal, natural gas, sulfur)--can be shifter, exported, to other states as final consumer pays
Gambling
lotteries, pari-mutel ( not a significant source of funds for most states)
Borrowing
mainly for capital improvements,most states do not allow borrowing for operating expenses
Budgeting by States
all states create a budget 31 states meet annually & pass annual budgets, 15 meet annually and pass biennial budgets, 45 states meet biennially and pass biennial budgets line by line of how state revenues should be spent by agencies (agency can spend less but not more)...
Passing the budget of a state
budgets must be passed in same form by both houses in state before being sent to governor all governors can veto, 41 have line item veto (can veto one line) most states have to balance the budget tax base increase in good economic times, decrease in poor econ time...
planned program budgeting
require agencies to compute costs of each service, thus making quite clear which services were least and most costly, costly programs can be made more efficient or struck from budget
zero based budgeting
requires agencies to defend budget requests from one budget to the next and all dollars in each budget
performance budgeting
links funding to substantive agency and program missions in budget and appropriations, past performances are reviewed, good ratings more money, negative ratings=less money
where does the fed govt get money to pay for services it provides? what happens if revenue is insufficient to cover expenditure?
income taxes borrows money
User/client pay vs: ability to pay
user: pay as you go (utilities) ability to pay: rich pay for poor
Why is some form of govt necessary?
market won't provide certain services at some point
Difference between tax base and tax incidence? What is tax shifting? Tax loopholes?
tax base: what is taxed while incidence is who is having to pay shifting: get someone to pay your taxes loopholes: tax exemptions
Tax Effort & Tax Burden
effort: how much government is trying to tax Burden: percentage you are paying
sources of revenue for state governments? how do they spend the money?
Income, sales, property taxes spend it on education, transportation, health and human services
2009 Tax Foundations Annual Survey of US Attitudes on Tax and Wealth showed:
more people want to keep taxes and services where they are or increase them than want to decrease services and lower taxes
Example of a merit good
education
Property tax
=flat rate tax

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