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teacher-directed
explicit instruction, instructor is the center of lesson
student-directed
implicit instruction, student actively engaged
mnemonic devices
memory aids, quick to recall information. good for: long lists, difficult words, details. Ex. PEMDAS
learning strategies approach
provides visual organizers to support cognitive routines, and improves comprehension
Vocabulary LINCs strategy
1. list the parts, 2. identify a reminding word, 3. not a LINCing story, 4. Create a LINCing picture, 5. Self-test
Graphic Organizers
provide visual tools to aid organization, provide semantic cues for processing content
Classwide peer tutoring
students take turn being the tutor and tutee, teachers train & supervise all students, actively engages students in the instruction
Differentiated instruction
modification of traditional instruction ex. station teaching, parallel teaching, alternative teaching, and team teaching
function
is the PURPOSE, to get something or to get out of something
precision requests
used to increase student cooperation with teacher requests. teachers give precise specific request, wait 5 seconds, if student responds appropriately the teacher gives praise. if not, the teacher repeats the request and repeats
premack principle
used for completing work, following directions, if/then statements
token economy
used for engagement, impulsivity, distractability, it is the ticket method
behavioral contract
written or verbal. identifies behavior and reinforce. some negotiation may occur
differential reinforcement
depends on what the student finds reinforcing, used for behaviors that occur frequently, on-task, compliance
Functional Behavior Assessment
used for sever behavior issues. Steps: 1. define the problem behavior, 2. collect data, 3. summarize data, 4. determine the function (purpose)
A-B-C
Antecedent (what happens directly before the problem behavior) Behavior (the actual behavior itself) Consequence (what happens directly after the problem behavior
The Good Behavior Game
based on group reinforcement. makes expectation explicit, tracks negative behaviors
check and connect
provides proactive support. pairs students needing support with adult mentors, includes daily behavior modeling
multimodal treatments
classroom behavior management, behavioral interventions, parent training, medication
service learning
community based learning, provides opportunities for hands on interactive learning
visual schedules
uses images to sequence. provides predictability, provides time to process upcoming transition
PECS: Picture Exchange Communications Systems
used pictures to communicate wants/needs. use in multiple settings. targets communication, social, and behavioral skills.
Applied Behavior Analysis
emphasizes assessment, programming, systematic reinforcement of appropriate behavior, and generalization of skills and behavior across settings and people.
video self-modeling
focuses on positive behavior, allows students to learn from their own positive behavior
task analysis
breaks down task into steps. individualized based on student needs. Ex. making a peanut butter sandwich, learning how to tie a shoe
Community-based intervention
supports generalization. provided to students transitioning into adulthood. Ex. teacher the Math IEP goal in the community by going to Target and paying for groceries once a week
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
supplements instruction, provides opportunities to practice, as well as builds fluency
Pre-Linguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT)
direct instruction of pre-linguistic skills, taught in natural environment
curriculum compacting
move at a rapid pace, assess, skip content that is already mastered
flexible grouping
grouping based on strength in a subject
tier assignment strategy
large group instruction, assignments based on ability
interest centers
interest inventory, centers based on student interest
syntax
knowledge of grammar; structure of sentences. Ex. Mark gave Keesha the book. Keesha gave Mark the book.
phonology
the sound system of a language and the rules for combing sounds. Not all languages use the same sounds.
semantics
knowledge of word memory, vocabulary. the sentence Maria is cold; can mean she is physically cold or acting in an uncaring manner
morphology
the rules for the structure of words. Ex. the rules we follow when converting a word to a plural or past tense
dialect
a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group. Ex. southern twang vs. Boston
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
diagnosis with criteria including a recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least 6 months
Mood disorder
characterized by abnormalities of emotional state, the elevation or lowering of a person's mood
Conduct disorder
describe antisocial patterns of rule-violating behaviors, often directed with the intent to harm others or property. some describe this as those who are making a conscious choice to engage in the behaviors
apraxia
inability to perform certain particular purposive actions having to do with one's speech. difficulty with skilled movements
hyperactivity
excessive motor movement, includes behaviors such as excessive fidgeting, squirming in seat, leaving seat.
inattention
inability to focus or concentrate for age appropriate amounts of time
impulsivity
inability to control ones behaviors and reactions on a reflective level. tendency to blurt out answers, not waiting turns.

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