Front Back
True
In Halal slaughter, the person says a prayer to God before each animal is bled. True or False
False
In beef slaughter, "Up" hide pullers were developed because of speed and AQL issues. True or False
True
The passage, "Do not cook at young goat in its mother's milk," is interpreted as meaning that meat and dairy products cannot be consumed together in the same meal and has caused the complete3 seperation of meat and dairy products in the home, including utensils/ …
True
A function of meat inspection is to detect and destroy diseased and/ or contaminated meat. True or False
True
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) is statistical sampling plan to determine cleanliness of all carcasses processed. True or False
True
An example of "Laboratory Determinations and Assays" would be testing meat from other specie with the use of antigen-antibody tests. True or False
False
Beginning in 2004, non-ambulatory cattle or "downers" are classified as "U.S. Suspects" and are slaughtered before a determination for their acceptance is made during postmortem inspection. True or False
True
Effective electrical stunning results in the head being limp, floppy with no blinking, no rhythmic breathing, no response to ear/nose pinching, no arched backs, no vocalization, and with limb movement being ignored. True or False
False
Fasciola hepatica is the scientific name for liver abscesses. True or False
True
Heat prostation in swine occurs because swine have very inefficient processes for body heat transfer. True or False
False
Long-term glycogen depletion in live hogs will result in pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork. True or False
False
Meat inspection is a voluntary program and plants pay to have this service performed. True or False
True
Meat processing plants have to be constructed so that they are clean (and can be cleaned) and do not contribute to hazards in meat. True or False
True
Muslims can eat meat slaughtered by people of the Jewish or Christian faiths (People of the Book). True or False
True
Once inspectors condemn an animal, a carcass, a cut or a product, it must be identified as U.S. Condemened abd held under lock and key or in suitably marked containers and disposed of by an approved animal.
True
Once inspectors condemn an animal, a carcass, a cut or a product it must must be identified as U.S. Condemned and held under lock and key or in suitably marked containers and disposed of by an approved method. True or False
True
Specified Risk Materials (SRM) for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) are those items found in cattle that are 30 months and older or are found in all cattle that may be of risk and thus must be removed and discarded to prevent the possible spread of BSE. …
False
The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act of 1978 states that all livestock must be stunned before bleeding including those used for Kosher and Halal. True or False
False
The NBQA-2005 found that heifers had heavier carcass weights than steers. True or False
False
The three locations of water in muscle, from the least held to most held, are bound, immobilized, and free. True or False
True
The tissue with the highest priority of nutrient utilization is nervous. True or False
True
The body tissue with the lowest priority of nutrient utilization is rib and loin. True or False
True
Well-bred animals with high inherent potential for growth will produce most efficiently on a full feeding program (high plane of nutrition). True or False
True
To produce a desirable carcass, you must full feed, market when ready, and do not hold. True or False
True
At some point and with the iherent growth potential of the specific animal involved, the proportions of muscles, bone, and fat are optimal. True or False
False
The National Consumer Retail Beef Study found that consumers wanted waste fat, not taste. True or False
True
The National Beef Market Basket Survey found that beef steaks and roasts had 27.4% less fat than USDA Agriculture Handbook 8-13 and ground beef had 10.2% less fat; True or False
False
Heme and non-heme iron are bothy equally absorbed by the body. True or False
True
Beef is a good source or total protein and Vitamin B-12 for the calories expended in a three ounce serving. True or False
True
Cuts such as the pork tenderloin, beef top round steak, and beef eye round roast are fairly similar to chicken breast and chicken thigh in calories and cholesterol. True or False
True
According to the studies presented in class, lean beef is comparable to chicken/fish in a cholesterol-lowering diet. True or False
True
It is lean beef versus fatty beef that is preferred in the various dietary guidelines. True or False
True
"Keep foods safe to eat" in the USDA 2000 "Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americas" was the first time that food safety was included in any of these guidelines. True or False
Water Holding Capacity
Ability of meat to retain its water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding or pressing.
Wholesome Meat Act of 1967
Act that required that states have inspection programs "equal to" those of the federal government.
The Jungle
Book published in 1906 that led to the passage of the Meat Inspection laws.
Crowding
Cause for most of the brusing that occurs in cattle.
Beef "Measles"
Common name for Cysticercus bovis.
Dark Cutting
Condition in beef or lamb caused by long-term or intermediate glycogen depletion.
Dark
If meat has a pH >6.0, would it likely be light or dark.
Reinspection Privalege
In product inspection, assures that a previously acceptable cut, carcass or product has not become sour, rancid, tainted, spoiled or adulterated.
Antemortem
Inspection of animals before slaughter, in motion and at rest.
Chemical, CO2
Method of stunning used in swine that has the advantage of no kicking and no broken bones.
Dead
Number one reason for cattle, swine, and sheep condemned in 2002 during antemortem inspection.
Suffocation
Packer-related problem with sheep when they pile up on each other.
Fasted 12-24 Hours
Performed before slaughter, makes evisceration easier and minmizes migration of bacteria from G.I. tract into meat.
Talmadge-Aiken Agreement
Plants that are federally inspected but are staffed by state employees.
Hide
Where Hypoderma lineatum does a majority of its damage.
Swine
Species graded with dichotomous grading system.
Grades
Group of livestock of similar market desirability in terms of predic
Market Report news
Other than "transactions sight unseen," the other purpose for the development.
Carcass Weight
Measure of size in beef carcass yield grading.
Increases
As muscling increases, retail cut does what?
Hide
By-product damaged by branding and mud/urine.
Carcass Weight
Carcass trait that continues to increase when measured by the national quality audits.
Clostridium Perfringens
Commonly referred to as the "cafeteria germ".
E. Coli 0157:H7
Foodborne pathogen that is a problem for children eating undercooked hamburgers.
Adrenaline
Hormone that converts glycogen to lactic acid in muscle.
5.2
Likely pH of meat at 24 hours postmortem if it is pale, soft, and exudative.
Sciatic
Neve avoided by Jews, which causes meat from the hindquarter to not be used.
Abscess Pyemia
Number one reason for swine condemned on postmoretem inspection in 2002.
Ecchymosis or blood splash
Other than bone breakage, common problems with electrical stunning.
Listeria Monocytogenes
Pathogen that grows at refrigerated temperatures and is a problem for pregnant women.
Salmonella
Pathogen that is the most commonly reported cause of foodborne illness
5.6
pH of normal meat at 24 hours of postmortem.
Injection-Site Legions
Problems in meat when shots are given intramuscularly.
Swine
Species forbidden to be consumed by Jews and Muslims.
Horizontal
Sticking position for swine that helps reduce pale, soft, and exudative pork.
What is a slunk skin and why is it so valuable?
It is the skin from an unborn calf. It is free from defects and is luxurious.
How does wool length affect the value of sheep pelts?
The longer the wool, the higher the value.
How does branding affect the value of cattle hides?
Native- unbranded --> most valuable Butt Brand- brand on the butt region--> intermediate Colorado Brand- side branded--> lowest value
What role do cattle hides play in the USDA Estimated Hide and Offal Value that is published daily?
They are the greatest contributor to the hide and offal value.
Fetal Calf Blood from unborn calves are used for?
Used for cancer and aids research.
Aorta valves from pigs are used for?
Replacement of defective human heart valves.
Fetal Pigs are used for?
Biology teaching
Gall Stones are used for?
Sold as aphrodisiacs in Far East.
Pancreas used for?
Source of insulin and trypsin.
What is the "mechanically seperated turkey" and "mechanically seperated chicken" used in this product?
Reclaimed meat made from chickens and turkey carcasses.
What is the purpose of the "sodium phosphates" used here?
Increase water-holding capacity.
Why would celery juice be used in incured or natural products?
Source of Nitrates for curing reaction.
What is a starter culture and why is it in this uncured product (one of the microorganisms is Micrococcus Auraniacus)
Converts NO3-->NO2
In the cured product, there is a compund used called "Glucono Delta Lactone." Why is it in there?
Converts NO2-->HONO
The cured product also has "sodium erythorbate" in it. What purpose does it have in this product?
Converts HONO-->NO (Nitric Oxide)
Lastly, the cured product has "corn syrup" and "dextrose." What purpose do they serve in this product?
Source of sugar Flavor Counteracts harshness of salt Provides energy for bacteria that change NO3-->NO2
What is "aging?"
Endogenous Enzymes--> calpains--> breakdown Z-Lines in post mortem muscle to make more tender.
Why are there breed type (Bos Taurus vs Bos Indicus) differences in how meat ages?
Calpastatin levels differ among breed types. The more calpastatin, the more it interferes with calpain activity.
Nolan Ryan also uses electrical stimulation to ensure tenderness. What does this process do for tenderness?
High Voltage Electrical Stimulation Helps prevent cold shortening and more rapid pH decline. Severs myofibrils.
What is "lean textured beef," and why has it been such a topic of controversy this year?
It is reclaimed meat made from fat. Two parts of controversy: Made from products that were usually rendered (people thought scraps of meat were used) Ammonia gas was used a pattern intervention (consumers thought household ammonia was being used.)
Vacuum Packaging Film
Oxygen barrier--> increases shelflife.
Pre-Rigor pork sausage manufacturing
Oxygen barrier--> oxygen--> through pre-respiration, converts to CO2 and makes wonderful packaged product.
What is "cold shortening" and does high temperature, pre-rigor chilling help prevent it?
Cold Shortening Process whereby sacromeres shorten due to cold-induced nervous responsed. High Temperature Pre-Rigor Chilling Holding carcasses at 16C for 16 hours will: slow down drop in temperature, and speed-up drop in postmortem pH.
What is "metmyoglobin reducing activity?"
Ability of muscle to convert metmyoglobin back to reduced myoglobin or oxymyoglobin. Some muscles high in it-- longissimus Some muscles low in it-- biceps femoris
What would the Color Index be for veal if veal had 2 mg/g myoglobin and bull had 20 mg/g myoglobin?
10 color index
What would the Binding Index be for chicken if chicken had SSHCP of 15% and bull had SSHCP of 30%?
50 Binding Index
What is the compund in fermented sausages that gives them their characteristic acid, tangy flavor?
Lactic Acid
What is case-ready packaging and how it is being used by retaiers like Wal-Mart today?
Sliced steaks are individually packaged- either by vacuum or modified atmosphere- are shipped directly to store for display.
Tenderness (Increase in age)
What happens? -becomes less tender (or becomes tougher) Why does it happen? -Background effect (loss of collagen solubility) primary reason
Lean Color (Increase age)
What happens? -Becomes darker in lean color Why does it happen? - Myoglobin loses its affinity to bind oxygen as animals get older requires more myoglobin with advancing age.
Fat Color (Increase age)
What happens? -Becomes yellow in fat color. Why does it happen? - Carotenoid compounds (such as beta-carotene) are stored in the fat with forage grazing.
Why do dressing percentage, carcass proportions, cutability, palatability, and acceptability impact beef more than swine?
Because of age at marketing versus age at puberty. Development of secondary sexual characteristics (crest, ability to become pregnant, etc.) at puberty causes changes to these five traits. Beef- market at 18 months; puberty at 12 months Pork- market at 7 months; puberty at 7 months.
What types of muscle fibers do cattle such as Angus, swine such as Duroc, sheep such as Southdown have, and why do they marble so well?
Muscle Fiber Types They have red muscle fibers Why do they marble so well Red fibers are oxidative and require fat (or fatty acids) as fuel.
Grades began to be developed in the early 1920's for two major reasons. What were these two activities that would be facilitated with grades?
Transactions sigh unseen Market News Reporting
What are three bad things that happen if you violate the Do Not Hold principle?
Decreased rate of gain Decreased Feed Efficiency Undesirable carcass proportions
Why is following the Full Feeding principle so important in achieving the optimum body composition?
Until those tissues, body areas, and fat depots that have priority for the animal are met, priorities that are important to us (Fat, rib and loin and marbling) will not be achieved.
Carcass A: 27.4 milivolts Carcass B: 20.3 milivolts Leaner?
Carcass A
Animal A: 2,100 kilograys Animal B: 1,800 kilograys Fatter?
Animal B
Animal A: 200mg Deterium Oxide Animal B: 150mg Deterium Oxide Fatter?
Animal B
Carcass A specific gravity: 1.09 Carcass B specific gravity: 1.03 Leaner?
Carcass A
Trends Consumer Attitiude and the Supermarket Minimum fat required
3%
Trends Consumer Attitiude and the Supermarket Importance of "taste" according to "Trends"
Most important factor related to foods selected
What is the maximum amount of fat that can be included and still meet American Heat Association guidelines?
7.3%
Animal A slept: 120 min Animal B slept: 60min Leaner?
Animal A

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