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Electrical Stimulation
A shocking way to make meat more tender.
Bromelin
Exogeneous enzyme from pineapple.
Ficin
Tropical plant enzyme from the fig.
Psoas Major
Scientific name for most tender muscle.
Gelatin
Collagen is converted to this when heated.
Myosin
Size of these fibrils is a Background Effect problem.
Actomyosin
Tenderness effect that deals with sarcomere length, muscle fiber diameter, and sarcomeres/fragment.
Calpastatin
Inhibits calpains
Cold Shortening
Process whereby muscles toughen due to cold-induced response.
Bulk Density or Lubrication Effect
Tenderness Effect that deals with amount and distribution of marbling.
Thin
Myofilament that contains actin as its primary protein.
Aitch Bone
Bone that TAMU Tenderstretch is hung by.
Bos Indicus
Cattle species that has toughness problem.
Aging
Storing meat under refrigeration to improve tenderness.
Papain
Tropical plant enzyme from the papaya.
Hydrodyne
Explodes meat underwater to tenderize.
Background Effect
Tenderness effect that deals with concentration of stromal proteins, size of elastin fibrils, and solubility of collagen. (Connective Tissue).
Actomyosin Effect
Tenderness effect that deals with sarcomere length, muscle fiber diameter, and sarcomere per fragment.
Relative rank in tenderness
P - psoas major B - biceps femoris D - deep pectoral I - infraspinatus R - rectus femoris L - latissimus dorsi G - gluteus medius A - adductor T - trapezius L - longissimus dorsi S - semitendinosus S - superficial pect. T - triceps brachii S - semimembranosus PIGLT BRASS DLTS (sirloin) P…
Roast
Which has a lower shear force, a steak or a roast?
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point)
A program that must be implemented into every meat processing plant to ensure food safety and prevent the spread of human pathogens. Has seven steps.
Postmortem inspection
This process after slaughter is necessary to ensure that the animal will achieve U.S Inspected and Passed otherwise be condemned from human consumption.
Antemortem Inspection
This process before slaughter is necessary to ensure an animal is acceptable to be slaughtered by being observed in motion and at rest.
Wholesome Meat Act (1967)
This act required that states have inspection programs equal to that of the federal government.
Support Muscles
This type of muscle is generally more tender than its counterpart, "locomotive muscles"
Degree of doneness
This can affect how tender a cut of meat is, but amounts of marbling can insure that tenderness remains.
Myoglobin
Stores Oxygen in cells
Darker
The more myoglobin present overall, the ________ the color appearance.
Higher
The older the animal, the ______________ the myoglobin content.
Iron (Fe++ [Ferrous] or Fe+++ [Ferric])
This attaches with different compounds at a free binding site in in Globin to help give meat its color.
Vitamin E
This is fed to livestock to increase the alpha-tocopherol concentration in muscle and overall help keep the meats color after slaughter.
Alpha-Tocopherol
An antioxidant that retards the conversion of reduced myoglobin and oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin.
Nitrosylhemochromogen
myoglobin + Nitric oxide + heat = this fancy sounding "cured" meat name
Salt Soluble Heat Coagulable Protein
SSHCP stands for this type of protein.
Tray-ready packagking systems
________ take presliced steaks, reassembles them, places them in a vacuum package and ships them to the store to be repackaged in the usual manner.
Heat shrinking Vacuum
_________ packages help to eliminate pockets where purge can accumulate.
Locomotive Muscles
These muscles have more myoglobin that support muscles.
Connective Tissue
Marination with a solution of salt and vinegar in water helps to disrupt ____________.
Saran
This is the inner layer in laminated vacuum packages that provides an oxygen barrier.
Tenderness differences among muscles
___________ are the result of Actomyosin effect, background effect, and bulk density/lubrication effect.
Phosphate
ingredient used during curing to increase water-holding capacity.
Massaging
employs the principle of frictional energy to extract proteins for boneless ham manufacturing.
Tumbling
employs the principle of impact energy to extract protein for the boneless ham manufacturing.
American
The four types of lamb legs that were discussed in the fabrication lab are Safeway, Frenched, Shank-off, and ___________.
Fisting
Method of pelt removal over the sirloin, rump, and legs used in lamb slaughter, which leaves the fell membrane intact.
Spareribs
Which of the pork "bony" cuts is considered a major wholesale cut?
400
The IMPS numbers for pork cuts are in the _________ series.
200
The IMPS numbers for lamb cuts are in the ________ series.
Mutton
The oldest lamb maturity group.
Ascorbates and Erythorbates
___________ and ___________ help in the conversion of nitrous acid (HONO) to nitric oxide (NO).
Stromal
A way to sever _________ proteins is with blade or needle tenderization.
TAMU Tenderstretch
Tenderization process whereby carcasses are suspended by the obturator foramen.
Z-line
Region of sarcomere that calpains degrade in the aging process.

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