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What are stereotypes?
cognitive in nature; beliefs about people based on category membership
What is prejudice?
attitudinal in nature; perceptions, feelings, attitudes about people
What is discrimination?
behavioral in nature; differential behavior toward people based on their group membership
What are 3 reasons for stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination?
cognitive reasons, attributional reasons, social/environmental causes
What is social categorization?
grouping people based on common attributes
What is Social Identity Theory?
favoring in-group (group you're a part of) over out-group (people outside of group you're in)
Robbers Cave experiment-sherif
2 groups of boys 1. bonded the two groups 2. made competition between two groups. threw insults, pranks, food fights, tension. intergroup dynamics changed 3. resolve conflict. Brought groups together to work towards a common goal
What is outgroup homogeneity?
the perception of outgroup members being more similar to each other than they actually are
What is illusory correlation?
perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists. (EX: it always rains on weekends)
What was the demonstration in class of illusory correlation?
A/B statements; rating each group on 12 different traits. group A was rated more positively, group B rated more negatively. ACTUAL: both groups had 2/3 positive and 1/3 negative
What is ultimate attribution error?
tendency to make attributions about members of a group based on that person's prejudices.
What is belief in a just world?
belief that people get what they deserve
What is confirmation bias?
seeking out info to confirm a belief
What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
our beliefs (about others) --> influences our actions (toward others) --> impacts other beliefs (about themselves) --> causes others actions (toward us) --> reinforces our beliefs (about others.
What is stereotype threat?
apprehension experienced by members of stereotyped group that their behaviors will confirm the stereotype.
How do you undue stereotype threat?
1. tell person that the task is unaffected by group membership 2. mindset: flexible vs. fixed 3. highlight values
T/F research findings support that value affirmation can buffer against stereotype threat
true; affirming ones values refocuses thoughts on personal integrity and worth and away from the anxiety of stereotype threat.
What is realistic conflict theory?
prejudice and discrimination arise over competition for limited resources
What is relative deprivation?
perception that you have less than deserved/expected compared to those similar to you have
What is contact hypothesis?
SPD will decrease as groups work together to solve a common problem
6 conditions of contact hypothesis
1. Mutual Independence-rely on each other 2. Common Goal 3. Equal Status 4. Informal Contact 5. Multiple Contacts 6. Social Norms - Equal Rules
What does the A stand for in the ABC's of attitude?
Affective component; feelings and beliefs
What does the B stand for?
Behaviors towards someone or something; inferring attitudes from our own behaviors toward something
What does the C stand for?
Cognitive aspect of attitudes; thoughts/beliefs about attitude object (pros/cons list)
What is a bogus pipeline?
phony lie detector device to elicit truthfully reported attitudes - more accurate self report data
What is a Implicit attitude test (IAT)?
measure of attitudes by reaction time. Things you agree with you respond more quickly to, things you disagree with you respond more slowly to.
When do attitudes predict behaviors?
1. when there are minimal social influences. 2. principle of aggregation (averaging behaviors across time/situation) 3. Strength of attitude (stronger attitudes more directly predict behavior)
What 3 factors of attitude predict behaviors?
1. Specific attitudes 2. social norms 3. control ALL lead from intention to behavior
When do behaviors predict attitudes?
through roles; attitudes are a weak predictor of behavior
What is foot-in-the-door?
if you comply with a small request first, you're more likely to comply with a large request
What is low-balling?
compliance with original request after it's been increased
What is door-in-the-face?
persuader makes large request expecting you to reject it, then makes a smaller request
What are the 5 techniques for downward dissonance?
1. change attitude 2. change perception of behavior 3. add consonant cognition 4. minimize importance of conflict 5. reduce perceived choice
Festinger's study
Turn pegs for an hour. One group was paid 1 dollar to tell next participant it was enjoyable, another group got paid 20 dollars. Both then asked to rate how enjoyable task was. Those in 1 dollar cond. changeed attitude most
T/F: High cognitive dissonance leads to insufficient justification
true; we cant use attitude to justify the way we acted so we change our attitude to be in line with our actions
What is self-perception theory?
infer our attitudes from our behaviors. try to figure out why we did what we did
What is self-affirmation theory?
we confirm the integrity of our self concepts
What is persuasion?
process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behavior
What is the Elaboration Likelihood model? (ELM)
model of persuasion that says there are 2 different routes to persuasion, central and peripheral.
What is the central route?
conscious, deliberate, thoughtful consideration and elaboration of arguments concerning issue; much more analytical - long lasting, resists fading and counterattack
What is the peripheral route?
less careful, more emotional. temporary change that is not as durable and likely to fade
what is credibility?
perception of trustworthiness and expertise
what is expertise
knowledge and experience
what is trustworthiness
honesty, lack of bias
What entails in attractiveness to an audience?
physical attractiveness, and simplicity
what is more persuasive - a one sided or two sided argument?
two sided; by addressing the other side of the argument, the communicator seems more trustworthy and therefore more easily to persuade
what is "stealing thunder"
when you start by arguing the opposing side then arguing your own side
What is fear appeal?
persuading someone using fear/scaring them into changing attitudes; effective with moderate amount of fear, and suggest behavior to alleviate that fear
At what age are people most easily persuaded? why?
18-25; college students have less stable attitudes and stronger tendency to comply with authority than adults
What does mood have to do with persuasion?
greater processing if mood and message content match; happy messages illicit more processing in happy people, sad messages illicit more processing in sad/depressed people
What is need for cognition?
a person's enjoyment of engaging in careful and effortful processing of information; if a person is high in need for cog. - persuaded by central route, if they are low in need for cog. - persuaded by peripheral route
What is self-monitoring?
tendency to change ones attitudes and behaviors to fit situation; high self monitoring - more persuadable, low self monitoring - less persuadable
Principles of influence: how does authority relate to influence?
people are more likely to follow directions/recommendations of someone they view as an authority
What is norm of reciprocity?
expectation that when others treat us well we should respond the same way
scarcity and influence
"only 4 left in stock" more likely to get it because there is not much left of it
consistency and influence
if you agreed once, you're more likely to agree again because you want to be consistent with your behaviors
social proof
makes it a social thing because if everyone else is doing it, you don't want to be left out
What is liking
tendency to be persuaded by someone we know and like (particularly with buying)

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