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Is anyone really an individual?
No since everyone has social relationships
Study of how people's thoughts, feelings, & behaviors influence and are influenced by others
Social Psychology
temporal comparison
compare yourself to a previous state
Social comparison
compare yourself to others, a reference group ( a collection of people)
Upward social comparison
compare yourself to more skilled, better looking people. Take poor me and compare to celebrities
Downward social comparison
compare to less skilled, less able people to protect self- esteem
Protecting the self: Terror Management theory
Humans have the ability to reflect on inescapable death this ability creates constant anxiety Really increasing self esteem < anxiety
Protecting the self: Constant drive towards self-esteem to counter existential anxiety
self-esteem is grounded in cultural values > self esteem buffers exposure to disturbing images, ideas
> self esteem buffers effects of seeing disturbing images
Tell people they are either really good or bad at an activity Make them perform the activity, reinforce initial group placement Show violent images People in bad group feel much worse about the images
Social Identity
Self is also tied to group: nuns, liberals, athletes Social identity is part of self concept: Feel secure, part of large group can be powerful motivation can also lead to discrimination, prejudice, & conflict
Help people organize & process info. about themselves Lots of overlap with self concept have a hard time remembering events that are not consistent with schema
schemas can effect
memory, perception, & problem solving
First impressions
made very quickly based on schemas tend to assume others are like us leads to self-fulfilling prophecy I don't like X, avoid X, opinion about X doesn't change, reffirm I dislike X
Willis & Todorov
Manipulated time of exposure 1/10 to 1 second unconstrained then rate the "competence" & "trustworthiness" found that time didn't affect people's ratings
The processes involved in explaining the behaviors of others (how to interpret the events that you cause) Draw on implicit theories of cognition & action\ You don't call me back! you must not love me!
Kelley's Attribution Theory is governed by 3 factors:
Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness
Degree to which other actors show the same behavior I become excited at the ice cream shop and so does everyone else (we all like ice cream= external attribution) High consensus: external attribution Low consensus: internal attribution
The degree to which the behavior of the actor is the same over time doug is always a jerk. He shows very high consistency: internal attribution Low consistency: external attribution
Degree to which behavior of actor is specific to this amount when you try to judge a person and realize that this behavior is abnormal for them. They don't normally get this angry High distinctiveness: external attribution Low distinctiveness: internal attribution
Fundamental Attribution Errors
Tendency to attribute behaviors of others to internal factors AKA: they are a moron
Ultimate Attribution Error
If people in a different class or group & have + outcomes, attribute that to external factors She got an A on that test, must have guessed lucky The other team won, we would have won on our own court If outgroup has negative experiences, it's bc of an internal factor. They lost bc th...
Actor-Observer Error
Tend to make internal attributions for other people, and external attributions for ourselves. They failed that test bc they're stupid, but I failed bc I didn't get enough sleep Might be caused by lack of info.
Self Serving Bais
Internal attribution for positive events External attribution for negative events
Unrealistic Optimism
Good things will happen to you, negative experiences are less likely Can lead to risky behaviors
A tendency towards a particular cognitive, behavioral or emotional reaction to a given object or event attitudes give you stability physician-assisted suicides (stable attitude towards the idea), but there is a lot of change regardless of what group you are looking at, even physicians
Attitudes & Behaviors
cognitive, emotion, & behavior Just bc I'm positive in a cognitive way doesn't mean my attitude is positive
Goal is to predict behavior from cognition
Factors: Life Relevance: Does it matter to me? Subjunctive Norm: Is this the way other people think Perceived Control: Will my behavior change anything Direct Experience: Have I lived this issue
Attitude Formation
Early learning Meer Exposure Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning
Early Learning
Explicit teaching "Don't talk to strangers" Modeling "OMG Spider" "Lazy foreigners"
Meer Exposure
The more times you see/hear something, the more likely you are to tend to like it. That's why commercials repeat words
Operant Conditioning
Group reinforces "appropriate"/ similar attitudes
Classical Conditioning
Pairing somthing hat is pleasant with something you're trying to change attitude about
Persuasion attempt:
Audience Factors: High motivation & ability to think about message Processing Approach: Deep processing, deciding argmnt qluity Persuasion outcome: Lasting change Example: reading an editorial
Audience Factors: Low motive or ability to think abt message Processing Approach: Superficial processing, focused on communicators & attractiveness Persuasion outcome: temporary change that will fade Example: watching a movie
Leon Festinger
Cognitive dissonance theory Invited to wedding, didn't even RSVP Can't accept that I acted innapproiatly, so say that I didn't like them anyway Can't believe that I was scammed when I paid for my car. > cost, > +feelings to car
What do people assume about cognitive dissonance theory
people recall previous event realign attitude to be more consistent with that behavior dissonance is in conscious, explicit comparison
Lieberman et al.
Amnesiacs should not have been able to maintain their preference towards the art paintings, but they did after a filler task.
Daryl Bern
People do not have well-formed attitudes about many situations If you act before consolidating an attitude, you reflect on that action to help establish the attitude
Portrayal of Women in the Media
under representation 38% of main characters in TV storylines Sexualization 41% of video games women totally or partially nude although not engaging in sex women and men represented in trditnal roles women represented in subordinate roles
Motivations for prejudice
feel secure & fulfills the need for antagonism Authoritarianism traditional values willingness to follow authority Acts aggressivly to threats from outgroup Gain social identity from anti-outgroup behvr
Cognitive Theories
Categories & concept are how we deal with the complex nature of the world Stereotypes & prejudice reflect inference from categories Stereotypes reflect inference from "type of person" based on unrepresentative sample Generalizations from category to 1 person not treating people like...
implicit vs explicit prejudice
implicit prejudice is not declared, but shown in behavior
implicit association test
Responding more quickly btn items means a higher association higher IAT score means more bias. doesn't measure explicit attitude
Limitations on Contact Hypothesis of prejudice
not all of equal status not all experiences will be + 1:1 basis is necessary to know the person typical group members: people make exceptions to the rule rather than give up prejudice Jigsaw puzzle technique: work towards team goal, share same burden, share danger & stress
Interpersonal Attraction
Positive prejudice aided by: Proimity Positive Atmosphere Similarity Physical attractiveness (matching hypotheses)
compassionate love
intimacy + commitment
Romantic love
intimacy+ passion
Fatuous love
passion + commitment
Marital Satisfaction
Degree to which you want to be in the relationship index of success in union strongly predicts dissolution (divorce) negative correlation
honeymoon is over effect
Most robust effect--> reality hits Go from high satisfaction --> lower Not universal among couples but very important
Predicting Marital Satisfaction
Personality traits & experiences prior to marriage negative affectivity: degree to which you tend to respond to negatives Parental divorce Stressful events encountered once married: health concerns & financial issues Emotional & communication skills:
Marital Satisfaction
Personality factors, stress, negative/ positive affect, & aggression Decline in marital satisfaction appears avoidable if some or all of these factors are shared
Social Influence
We're not as autonomous as we think People tend to mirror each other, even unconsciously Explicit & implicit effects
Social Norms
Socially based rules which dictate how people should behave in various environments church, school
Descriptive Norms
indicate how others typically behave in a situation observe environment & act similarly
Injunctive Norms
Directly address acceptable & unacceptable behavior sign stating "no talking" in the library
invoked as an injunctive norm by other Can be used strategically
Person becomes immersed in the identity of a group Loss of sense of individuality, emotionally arousing, intense group feeling Uniforms, hoods, masks, etc. Often allows regular people to be violent
Presence of others can also affect performance Social facilitation: others being present > performance (push-ups) Social impairment: others < performance-test Social loafing: when people share a task, expend < effort less common in collectivist societies
Factors Effecting Obediance
Experimenter status: move outside univ. setting & compliance < Behavior of other people If others quit, participant is much more likely to as well Personality Some aspects of personality may be related to obedience (authoritarianism)
Cost-reward theory
cost to self of helping vs cost not helping clarity of need for help presence of other people
cooperation, competition, conflict
conflict: situation in which one group or person is seen as interfering with e goal attainment of another

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