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PSYC 1103: CHAPTER 12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Germinal Stage
First 2 weeks the zygote divides to form an embryo.
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Embryonic Stage
For six weeks the embryo develops a hear, nervous system, digestive system, and ovaries or testes. By the end the embryo has developed eyes, a nose, a jaw, elbows, hands, fingers, etc.
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Fetal Stage
For the remaining seven months, the fetus begins to gain function and in the 8th/9th month the fetus can respond to the external environment
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Tertogens
Harmful external substances that are especially damaging during the embryonic stage, ie the critical period of prenatal development. Common ones include nicotine, alcohol, drugs and dangerous chemicals.
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Newborn Vision and Senses
Limited vision and objects appear to be the same size regardless of size on retina (size consistency). Not much depth perception yet. Other senses also limited.
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Neonatal Reflexes
Breathing Sucking Rooting Moro (Brace for fall) Grasping A lack of these indicates possible neurological problems and most will go away as the child ages
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Piaget's Theory - Sensorimotor
First 2 years, infants learn about the world from the senses and understand to differentiate themselves from the external world. They learn that objects exist when not visible and that they are independent of the infant's actions. Some appreciation for cause and effect.
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Piaget's Theory - Preoperational
From 2-4 children can now think in images and symbols but cannot manipulate or transform the information. The second half from 4-7, children can represent objects with something else and intelligence is intuitive. Period characterized by an egocentric view of world
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Piaget's Theory - Concrete Operational
From 7-11, children can understand logical principles of concrete objects and view the world through the perspective of others.
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Piaget's Theory - Formal Operational
From adolescences on, we can think logically and abstractly about ideas like the future or social justice. Can reason with just language and manipulate abstract constructs.
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Assimilation
Taking information of new objects by using existing schemas that will fit it.
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Accommodation
Adapting a schema to a new object when the object cannot fit into a schema.
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Object Permenance
Knowledge that object exists when not in view. Marks end of sensorimotor stage.
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Conservation
Ability to recognize that properties of object will remain constant or will know what will change these properties. Not shown in the preoperational stage. Demonstrated by candy experiment.
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New Views on Piaget's Theory
Infants do think and have object permanence (Baillargeon) Looking at the mind as a computer, information processing Its a gradual progression through stages
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Executive Control
Set of lower level processes that control the rest of cognition. Sets basic goals, such as a delay of gratification. Early studies in delay of gratification follow through in life
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Theory of Mind
Ability to understand ones own thoughts and other peoples thoughts. Perner and the false belief task show how children under four will not display this. They think that "sally" sees what they even if she didn't.
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Attachment Theory (Bowbly)
Idea that children form a close attachment to their earliest caregiver and that this will affect the child later on in life. Monkey studies show that they seek attachment over physical needs.(Harlow)
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Strange Situation (Ainsworth)
In an unfamiliar room a stranger enters and then the mother leaves, and then the mother comes back. Secure attachment will feel anxious and then happy when mother returns Avoidant is when they ignore the mother Ambivalent/anxious infants angrily reject the mother and continue to cry Disorganized infants have inconsistent behavior
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Temperament
Basic disposition of an infant. Jerome Kagan saw indicators as early as four months old. Babies that get excited by stimulation actually more likely to become shy later on in life.
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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Each stage of life has a crisis that will effect later development. Parenting affects this Trust v Mistrust Autonomy v Shame and doubt Initiative v Guilt Industry v Inferiority Identity v Role confusion Intimacy v Isolation Generativity v Stagnation Integrity v Despair
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Trust v Mistrust
Infants learn from world, especially from mother in first years
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Autonomy v Shame and Doubt
In the second year children, affect by parents, will learnt to either exercise their will or become uncertain if they can do things by themselves
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Initiative v Guilt
In the third to fifth year learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments or feel guilty about their attempts if not allowed to initiate.
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Industry v Inferiority
Till puberty, children either develop a sense of industry and curiosity to learn or they feel inferior and loose interests in the tasks before them
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Identity v Role Confusion
Adolescents either see themselves as an unique person or become confused with whole they are and what they want
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Intimacy v Isolation
Early adults need to either commit themselves to another person or develop a sense of isolation
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Generativity v Stagnation
Adults will either devote their lives to the common good or become in active and stagnant in life
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Integrity v Despair
In the final stages of life, people reflect to see if they had a meaningful life or if it was a life wasted.
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Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Morality is developed in six stages, the first four being nearly universal and associated with collective cultures. It is rather culturally dependent and gender specific. Not entirely universal
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Preconventional Moral Stage
1. Obeying and avoiding punishment from a superior authority 2. Making a fair exchange, good deal
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Conventional Moral Stage
3. Pleasing others to get approval 4. Doing one's duty and following social order
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Postconventioal Moral Stage
5. Respecting rules and laws but recognizing that they may have limits 6. Following universal ethical principles such as justice, reciprocity, human rights, etc.
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Early Gender Differences
Boys: better at manipulation and 3d forms, more aggressive/competitive, riskier, and dominant in social relationships Girls: better at speech and writing, higher in empathy, longer gaze duration with adult females, more empathetic and relational.
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Toys and Monkey Experiment (Alexander and Hines)
Monkeys displayed gender differences in the toys they play with. Indicates that at a basic level there are biological presets to gender differences.
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Differences in Gender Socialization
Boys: Get rougher play, less concern for injury, and encouraged to be independent and like the sciences Girls: Get gentler play and more comments of physical appearance. Spoken to more emotionally and encouraged reflective behavior. Just the gender appearance alone will affect the parent behavior.
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Puberty
Period of sexual development and physical growth. Mental growth occurs as well along with the "pruning" of synapses and strengthening of connections.
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Problems Associated with Adolescence
Risk taking, role confusion, depression, eating disorders, insomnia, self esteem, relationship with parents and sexual confusion. About 50% by age 16 have had sexual intercourse.
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Early Adulthood Physical Changes
Physical growth continues and is generally considered the prime of life. Intimacy vs isolation
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Middle Adulthood Physical Changes
Loss of sensory sharpness and bone density deteriorates (illiac crest). Women will have another dip in bone density with menopause. Fertility decreases
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Late Adulthood Physical Changes
Men will shrink an inch and women two, reflexes fade and other senses continue to weaken. Cognitive abilities are also declining.
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Cognitive Changes in Adulthood
Episodic memory deteriorates faster than semantic memory. Can help by keeping the mind active and diverse.
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