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Articles of Confederation
-          Written before the Constitution, drafted in 1777 during the Revolution. -          Very weak central government, very suspicious of concentrated power and had very little control. -          Treaty for mutual defense -          One-house congress -          No president & n…
Shays' Rebellion
-          Debt ridden farmers led by Shays closed the courts to prevent the seizure of their land -          Acted in the “spirit of the Revolution.” -          Over 1,000 were arrested. -          This produced fears that democratic impulses were getting out of hand.
The Constitution
-          Delegates from each state except Rhode Island met in Philadelphia, 1787. -          Mostly elite citizens who sought to “curb the excesses of democracy.” -          Agreed that the new govt. would have national legislature, executive branch & judiciary. -          Compromise…
Federalists & Anti-Federalists
-          The Federalists believed in limited democracy, also that common people could not be trusted with too much power. Government protected liberties, a division of power, checks & balances. People like Hamilton, Madison & Washington were Federalists -          The Anti-Federalists …
Slavery & the Constitution
-          This was the elephant in the room when they were discussion the new Constitution -          “Slave” and “Slavery” do not appear anywhere in the document. -          Delegates of the Constitutional convention included both slave holders & abolitionists -          3/5 Compromi…
John Adams' Presidency
-          First and only Federalist president. -          Emergence of political parties: Federalists & The Jeffersonian Republicans -          Quasi war with France -          Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 o   Move to silence critics o   Deport foreigners from countries at war with…
The War of 1812
-          After continual Impressment, and rumors of the British conspiring with the Indians against the US, Congress declared war in 1812. -          1814: British invades the US -          Seized Washington D.C. & burned down the White House -          1815: Heavy bombardment of For…
Election of 1828
- Ran on limited government -  Established democratic party - Rise of the party machine o   Began campaigning immediately after election of 1824 o   Partisan papers - Elite vs. common man - War Hero - Resounding victory, carrying the South & West (Jackson played the fact that he wa…
Differences Among Whigs & Democrats
- Democrats o   Alarmed by class divisions & market revolution o   Small government o   Individual freedom & private morality o   Attracted poor farmers. - Whigs o   Federal government guide economy through taxes, additional banks & internal improvements. o   Strongest in Northeast…
Nullification Crisis
- Despite Jackson’s promotion of a small govt, he backed the 1828 tariff which raised taxes on imported manufactured goods. - Opposition from the south who believed that this tax benefited the North while hurting the south. - Threats to nullify this act. - States restrained the right t…
The Bank Wars
- Jackson distrusted the national bank - Saw it as a tool of the rich, unconstitutional - Fought against the “monster bank” through the veto - First president to use the veto as a weapon (used 12 vetoes during his presidency) - Opponents called him “King Andrew”
Impact of Western Expansion on Slavery
-          Western expansion divided the North & South -          By 1860 over 4 million had moved West -          Six new states: Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama and Maine -          Manifest Destiny: God-given right & mission to spread their civilization & free inst…
Nat Turner's Rebellion
- Nat Turner was a slave preacher - Virginia, July 4, 1831 - From farm to farm assaulting whites. - 80 slaves joined / 60 whites killed - Put down pretty quickly by the militia - Last large-scale rebellion in southern history. - Sent shock waves through the South - “A Nat Turner mi…
True Woman & "Private Spheres"
-“True Woman”             - Always opposite of the “true man”             - Men were lustful, women were chaste and passionless             - The virtuous sexless woman was a sign of her higher moral status. - “Private Spheres”             - Men visited restaraunts, clubs and theater…
The Grimke Sisters
- Anti-slavery lectures before “mixed” audiences of men and women. - First abolitionists to promote women’s rights - Daughters of a wealthy slave owner - From Quakerism to militant abolitionism. - “Sex segregation” - “Women regard themselves and are regarded by men as pretty toys.”
The Second Great Awakening
- Despite revolution & disestablishment, churches grew - 1795-1865 recurrent - Methodist circuit riders - America’s largest denomination by 1820 - Emphaiss on the free individual to work out salvation - Moral perfection - Formal training & worship seen as barriers to the Gospel
Unitarians & Universalists
- Enlightenment ideas with Protestantism - In using same arguments of self-reliance, came to very different conclusions - Rejected miracles & The Trinity - Anti-emotionalism - Rejected original sin (people are inherently good or bad) - All going to heaven - Dominated Harvard Univers…
Transcendentalists
- Former Unitarians - Rejected rationalism - Transcendental experiences (some life experiences just don’t make sense) - Rejected materialism of urban life - Market life made men machine-like and dependent - Nature was our true companion - Truth in the individual.
Shaker Community
o   Mother Ann Lee o   God’s dual nature o   Gender equality o   Celibate communism o   Convulsive dancing o   Grew through conversion & adoption o   5,000 members in 1840s o   Died out by the 1850s o   Focused on community
Oneida Community
o   John Humphrey Noyes o   Belief in moral perfection (claimed it for himself) o   Abandoned private property & traditional marriage o   Convicted people of adultery o   Started their own community in Oneida, NY in 1848: lasted until 1881 when it died out. o   Complex marriages §  …
Philadelphia Riots of 1844
a.   Irish interrupt American Party meeting b.   Fighting in the streets c.   Nativist set arson to Irish homes while Irish fired from windows d.   Burned a convent & 3 churches e.   3 days of fighting in which police could not maintain control. f.    Broken up by militia g.   20+ c…
California Gold Rush
§  California had a non-Indian population of less than 15,000 when the Mexican American war ended §  In 1848 gold was discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains §  Gold mania spread throughout the world §  By 1850, San Francisco had 30,000 residents and was the world’s …
Compromise of 1850
§  1850 California asked to be admitted to the Union as a free state §  Southerners opposed the measure §  Henry Clay offered a four-part bill as a compromise ·         California admitted as a free state ·         Fugitive slave law passed §  Calhoun rejected any compromise §  Fier…
Kansas-Nebraska Act & "Bleeding Kansas"
§  Kansas held election in 1854-1855 §  Hundreds of pro-slavery Missourians cast fraudulent ballots §  Settlers from free states established rival governments §  Sporadic civil war broke out, “Bleeding Kansas” (over 200 casualties) §  John Brown’s massacre §  After Charles Sumner (R)…
Dred Scott Case
§  Scott sued for his freedom after living in Illinois and Wisconsin §  Could a black person be a citizen and thus sue? §  Did residence in a free state make Scott free? §  Could Congress prohibit slavery in a territory? §  Robert E. Taney answered “no” §  Declared Republican platfor…
Rise of the Republican Party
§  Coalition of anti-slavery Democrats, northern Whigs, Free Soilers, and Know-Nothings §  Convinced northerners that the “slave power” was a worse threat than “popery” or immigration §  Appeal rested on “free labor” §  Platform: opposed the extension of slavery into the new territory …
John Brown's Raid
§  Armed assault on a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA §  21 men, including 7 African Americans §  Hoped to spark a slave rebellion, but poor planning §  Captured and put on trial for treason §  Hanged December 1859 §  Impact ·         Hero in the North ·         Infuriated th…
Election of 1860
§  Deep South rejects Douglas §  Supported John Breckinridge (D) who vowed to protect slavery §  John Bell: Constitutional Union Party ·         To preserve the Constitution (with slavery) and the Union (without fighting) §  Lincoln won by virtue of carrying the North
Southern Secession
§  Months after the election seven states seceded §  From South Carolina to Texas §  Likened their movement to American independence §  Confederate States of America §  Adopted a constitution §  Chose Jefferson Davis as president Alexander Stephens chosen as VP
North & South on the Eve of Civil War
a.   Attack on Ft. Sumter, April 12, 1861                                          i.    Unleashes patriotism in the North; 75,000 volunteers (90 days)                                         ii.    In South, Lincoln’s call for troops taken as naked aggression.                         …
The Battle at Gettysburg
a.   Despite decline of morale in the South, war’s outcome in doubt. b.   Union defeated at Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville c.   Lee planned an invasion of the North d.   Armies met at Gettysburg e.   After failing to dislodge Union forces, Confederates attacked the center of the Un…

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