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Physical Activity always involves
the mind as well as the body.
ABC of sport Psychology
A - affect B - behavior C - cognitions
Behavior in physical activity
why people behave differently from one another in physical activity
Cognition in physical activity
thought process of individuals influence and are influenced by their participation in physical activity
Sport and exercise psychology focus on
the study of human thought, emotion, and behavior in physical activity
Career opportunities in sport & exercise psychology include
university professors, performance enhancement specialists, fitness and health promotion specialists, and sports medicine consultants
First goal of sport & exercise psychology
understand the social-physiological factors that influence people's behavior and performance in physical activity.
Second goal of sport & exercise psychology
to understand the psychological effects derived from participation in physical activity
Third goal of sport & exercise psychology
to enhance the sport and exercise experience for those who participate in physical activity
Sport and Exercise psychology was not recognized as a sub discipline in kinesiology until
the 1960's
Norman Triplett
1898 studied the effects on the presence of other people on bicycling performance, results published 1905
Coleman Griffin
professor at University of Illinois, first systematic examination of psychological aspects of sports 1919-1938
Psychology of Coaching & Psychology of Athletics
1926 & 1928 published by Griffin
Phillip Wrigley hired Griffin as sports psychologist for
the 1938 Chicago Cubs
Bruce Ogilvie
San Jose State, personality in athletes & applied psychological interventions
Dorothy Harris
Penn State, systematic focus on women in sport
First meeting of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)
1965
first North American Society for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity (NASPSPA)
1967
Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning & Sport Psychology
founded 1969
Trends in 1980's sport psychology
distinct subdiscipline, growth in research, and increased interest to applied sport psychology
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
(AAASP) 1986
1991 the AAASP implemented criteria for identifying minimum professional training standards
for individuals to be certified to provide consulting services in Sports & Exercise psychology
psychological inventories
standardized measures of specific forms of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in people
Biofeedback
physiological measures used to asses the body's responses to stressors associated with physical activity
Research methods in Sport & Exercise Psychology
interviews, observation, physiological measures, biochemical measures, and content analysis
successful athlete personality traits
more self-confident use more effective strategies & coping mechanisms efficient self-regulators positively preoccupied with sport highly determined and committed to excellence in their sport
sport participation doesn't always build character
sometimes it increases aggression
motivation
a complex set of internal amd external forces that influence individuals to behave in certain ways
extrinsic motivation
people engage in a certain behavior to gain some external reward from that participation
intrinsic motivation
engaging in behavior because you enjoy the process and gain satisfaction from participation
all humans, regardless of their individual goals are motivated to feel
competent and self-determining
arousal
a state of bodily energy or physical and mental readiness
spectator effect
negative when learning a skill, positive when very skilled.
cohesion
the tendency for groups to stick together and remain united in pursuing goals
social loafing
refers to a decrease in individual performance within groups, not a conscious process
aggression
behavior directed toward inflicting harm or injury on another person
gender
social and psychological characteristics and behaviors associated with being male or female
a decrease of almost 50% of physical activity occurs
between the ages of 6 and 16
successful physical activity programs for children emphasize
fun, challenge, skill and fitness improvement, and social affiliation to match their participation movtives
intervention techniques in sport and exercise science can
increase exercise adherence, enhance sport performance, develop life skills, and ease career transitions and retirement from sport
imagery
a mental technique that programs the mind to respond as programmed, uses all senses to create or recreate an experience in the mind
goal of physical relaxation
to teach people how to control the responses of their automatic functions when faced with stressors in physical activity environments
burnout
feelings of mental, emotional, and physical exhaustion, negative moods and feelings, lack of accomplishment, disillusionment
motor behavior
how skills are learned and controlled, and how movement changes from birth through end of life
specificity of practice
practice conditions that are similar to actual game performance will benefit performance
practice helps improve motor skills because
the natural adaption of the brain and nervous system develop over time
goals of motor behavior
understand how motor skills are learned and understand how motor skills are controlled, understand how the learning and control over motor skills change in a lifetime
Adam's 5 themes from early work in motor behavior that have persisted
knowledge of results, distribution of practice, transfer of training, retention, and individual differences
WWII era showed great interest in motor developments because
the military needed to select and train pilots
memory drum theory
reaction time is slower for complex movements because those movements took more planning time
Ruth Glassow, Larry Rarick, and Anna Espenschade
how children acquire skills, how fundamental movement patterns are formed
reaction time
how quickly the movement begins after a signal
novel learning tasks
created for use in experiments so that no one had the advantage of practicing before. often very easy and made more difficult by use of blindfold
kinematics
location, velocity, acceleration
motor learning
an internal state that is relatively permanent; practice is required in order for it to occur, and it can be difficult to observe
correct practice
improve performance and supports learning
augmented feedback
enhances practice and thereby learning
extrinsic feedback
knowledge of results and knowledge of performance (KR, KP) feedback is information about the result of your activity from outside source
intrinsic feedback
information about performance that you obtain for yourself as a result of the movement
5 Requirements for motor programs
specify muscles involved select order of muscle involvement determine forces of muscle contraction specify relative timing and sequences of contractions determine duration of contractions
5 areas of motor control study
degrees of freedom - coordination motor equivilency serial order of movements perceptual integration during movement skill acquisition
challenges produced by growth
mechanical, adaptive, and absolute
biomechanics
the application of mechanical laws of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems
human movement biomechanics
the study of structure and function of human beings using the principles and methods of engineering and physics
human factors engineers
design technology based on how people process information and respond to the information when performing a task
first major goal of human movements biomechanics
understand how people use and are affected by the fundamental principles of mechanical physics and engineering that explain how forces influence our structure and function
second major goal of h.m.b
apply theoretical understanding to improve performance and effectiveness or increase the safety and health of those body tissues affected by forces in physical activity.
earliest biomechanic
Aristotle
Steindler's legacy
coined term Biomechanics and gave it a definition
Era of Contemporary biomechanics
1960's - today
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation
AAHPER and the Kinesiology Section (now biomechanics academy) official recognition in 1965
Research Method Model for Biomechanics
1. Identify your question 2. state performance goals 3. Consider influencing factors 4. Understand motions and Mechanics 5. Determine relevant principles and movement techniques 6. Observe or measure 7. Assessment, evaluation, and interpretation
External forces on physical activity
fluid resistance, gravity, friction, and ground reaction forces
ground reaction forces
when force is applied to the ground, the ground applies equal and opposite force back
compressive loading
when forces act to pus together or compress an object
run on milledge at 5 o'clock
you probably won't get molested
exercise physiology/exercise science
a subdiscipline of the biophysical sphere, along with biomechanics of physical activity.
Look at exercise in terms of 3 things
duration intensity frequency
Probably don’t do much without a graduate degree. You need to know more than the minimum
If you want to be king of the lab, you have to get your doctorate
Background needed
biology, anatomy, physiology. Not taken on the spur of the moment. If you’re not required to take it you wouldn’t take it.
Exercise physiology subdivisions
Human performance Muscle physiology Health & Disease Fitness of the elderly
goals of exercise physiology
1. to understand how to enhance physical performance 2. to understand how to improve physical function in particular environments 3. understand how physical activity improves health and fitness 4. understand how exercise can be used in treating and preventing disease & alleviating symp…
early contributors to exercise physiology
August Krogh & A.V. Hill
muscular strength
maximal amount of force exerted by a muscle group
muscular power
product of force times speed of movement
endurance
the ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force over a prolonged period
Sport psychology is more a physical education interest
Relates to psychology in the participation of sport
Coleman Griffiths
father of sports psychology, Advanced rapidly based on some of the things that he did
Research in Exercise & Sports psychology
Not particularly interested in knowing much about this.
personality
offensive linemen and defensive linemen have very different personalities
immediate body response to exercise
heart rate increase, respiratory increase
long term response to exercise
lower blood pressure, gain strength and endurance
Clinical exercise physiology
Dr. Duval just a different name for what used to be called adult fitness cardiac rehab
gerontologist
interest in fitness for the elderly
exercise physiologist
human performance
nutrition and disease
how does nutrition affect the body, how does it relate to health? How does exercise effect health
physiologist
pulmonary heart lung capacity
what is the affect of heat on the human performance
some of the best research on this topic was done long long ago in the desert and colder climates
training device
mile run: aerobic capacity, strength, endurance, lung capacity
Does the mile run give us the same information that we get in the laboratory?
Yes. Usually. It’s super easy to do the mile run test. Test is used in the natural environment. Right there in the field. Generally college students, relatively young adults in average shape with few physical problems.
All diets are not created equal
distance runners have different diets than sprinters. Distance needs slowly released energy, sprinters want instant energy
theraputic exercise
systematic and scientific application of exercise and movement experiences to develop or restore muscular strength, endurance, or flexability
rehabilitation
processes and treatments that restore skills or functions that were previously acquired but that have been lost because of injury, disease, or behavioral traits
habilitation
the processes and treatments leading to the acquisition of skill and functions that are normal and expected for an individual of a particular age and status
sports medicine
an aspect of therapeutic exercise that is exclusively dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries
prehabilitation
occurs following the injury but before the surgery
corporate fitness
usually a gym at a corporate site, subsidized rates for employees, membership fees, group fitness programs and personal training. centered around customer service
comercial fitness
large chain gyms, usually with lots of equipment and group exercise studio, well known names, high usage & traffic, introductory fee and monthly contract, staff doesn't need degree or certification, selling memberships rather than personal attention
American College of Sports Medicine
(ACSM) certifications for exercise science, health fitness, & personal training
National Strength and Conditioning Association
(NCSA) top certifications training and coaching
what is an athletic trainer?
allied health care professional for the prevention, care, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries & illness, administrator of health care services for athletes - including coordination of sports medicine team
sports medicine team
physician, athletic trainer, nutritionist, massage therapist, emergency medical team, coaches, parents
roles of an athletic trainer
injury prevention, injury recognition, evaluation and immediate care, injury treatment & rehabilitation, health care & administration, professional development

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