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13th Ammendment
outlaws slavery & involuntary servitude destroys Southern economy
14th Ammendment
national citizenship to former slaves prohibited denying rights to citizens w/o due process of law denied former Confederates to hold office
15th Ammendment
prohibited denial of suffrage due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Aldebert Ames
served as a Union Army general during the Civil War Radical Republican & Carpetbagger Military governor, Senator and civilian governor in Reconstruction in Mississippi US Army general during the Spanish-American War
Alexander Manly
AA newspaper editor in N. Carolina Wilmington Daily Record- only AA owned newspaper at the time denounced lynching & anit-black scare tactics during 1898 elections his office was destroyed in the Wilmington Race Riot where he was forced to flee
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
founded by Samuel Gompers focused on skilled workers & labor declared war w/ Knights of Labor didn't defend unskilled workers, women or immigrants
promotes assimilation of culture & ethnic minorities into dominant culture often referred to immigrants moving into new land
Black Codes
laws passed by Southern legislators for former slaves limited black's political, social, & economic mobility labor contracts within blacks & whites were mandated & regulated Could:  legally marry other blacks, sue & be sued, purchase property w/ restrictions Couldn't: vote, hold o...
Bull Moose Party
Progressive Party of 1912 formed by President Theodore Roosevelt after Republican Party split between him & W. Taft became disappointed in Taft's conservative policies & created party
Carlisle Indian Industrial School
school for Indian children to Americanize
Chinese Exculsion Act
no Chinese laborers can legally come to US for 10yrs under penalties of imprisonment & deportation permanent aliens 1st restriction on immigration
Compromise of 1877
Republican Rutherford B. Hayes wins election & ends Reconstruction won with understanding of removal of troops where Republican support was essential to survive many white Republicans also left & Democrats took their control "Redeemers"  construction of transcontinental RR to help So...
Coxy's Army
protest march by unemployed worker's of US during time of depression in 1894 people wanted more federal government
Crop-lien System
Credit system used by farmer's in the South merchants provided food & supplies all year long on credit; when the cotton crop was harvested farmers turned it over to the merchant to pay back their loan merchants would charge farmers interset since they themselves had to borrow $ to b...
Dawe's Act
aka: General Allotment Act Designed to encourage break up of tribes & for them all to unite in divided lands for Indian to assimilate Indians into American society
De Facto &/or De Juro Segregation
De Facto- in practice but not offical by law       -> racial discrimination & segregation De Juro- concerns the law       -> segregation becomes law       -> "seperate but equal"
Dred Scott
Born into slavery spent large time in free stat/territory all blacks could NOT become US citizens slaves are property slaves could be taken to free territories but not become free
Emancipation Proclamation
Proclaimed freedom of slavery in Confederate states by Abraham Lincoln not necessarily a law, but symbolic
Eugene V. Debs
Best known Socialist leader in US several timed candidate of Socialist Party
Farmer's Alliance
organzied agraian economic movement for farmers tried to end crop-lien would send lecturers to speak words of encouragement blamed rigged systems rather than themselves Ocala Meeting Demands
Free Silver
Free coinage of silver rather than Gold Standard cotton farmers in the South and the wheat farmers in the West were enthusiastic 
Gospel of Wealth
Written by Andrew Carnigie believed in giving wealth & not giving it as heirs gave money to help people [not charities] dying wealth is a disgrace
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
First national labor strike [start of labor unionization] wage cuts, distrust of capitalists & poor working conditions led to a number of railroad strikes that prevented the trains from moving no strikes in South; Reconstruction shifted to industrial/economic concern start of r...
Haymarket Riot
Striking for shorter work day & better pay someone threw a bomb & police released fire [lots of dead/injured] major crackdown on radical labor organizations
Horizontal Integration
John D. Rockerfeller's Oil Industry buying out all rivals(monopoly) single product gains control of market by forcing out all competitors
Impediments to Voting
Literacy tests poll tax Understanding Clause Grandfather Clause All-White Democratic Primary
Knights of Labor
One of the largest labor organizations promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism 8hr work days, end child labor & convict labor
Mississippi Plan
Devised by Democratics to overthrow Republicans by acts of violence & threats to suppress black voting in Mississppi tried reversing Republican domination stir up fear for blacks Red Shirt violence & KKK became involved
Reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports to perform an auditing or watchdog function Upton Sinclair & the meat industry [lead to food & drug administration] lots of study & research got done
Municipal Housekeeping
Women who believed that a woman’s place was in the home, her city it's responsibility of women to keep their cities safe and clean could use nurturing skills to clean society
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt's plan [wealthy & educated should help others] women suffrage prohibition of child labor min. wage for working women 8hr work day stricter corporate regulation [Sherman Trust Act] strong federal government led by an Activist meat inspection [Pure Food & Drug Ac...
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's plan economic opportunity & regulation, consumer saftely, individualism, states' rights, & middle-class values no immigrant concerns  worked on segregation, worker's compensation & child labor regulations
New York City Draft Riots
Violent disturbances due to working-class discontent by Congress passing laws to draft men to fight Civil War Irish men in particular who were low in social hiearchy & couldn't afford to pay for a subsitute such as the rich did military troops had to control people citizenship ...
Ocala Demands
Free coinage of silver                       graduated income tax gov't regualation of RR                    immigration restrictions sub-treasury                                     8hr work days created Populist Party (farmer's & laborers) Farmer's Alliance
Omaha Platform
Party program adopted by Populist Party in Nebraska we seek to restore the government of the Republic to the hands of the plain people, with which class it originated. financial crisis
Panic of 1873
Financial crisis caused by the fall in demand for silver internationally commenced Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Platt Ammendment
Essentially made Cuba a US colony US had right to intervene to protect Cuban Independence needed US consent to sign treaties required to provide land for US military (99yr lease of naval base Guantanamo) set up sanitation programs to protect their people & make island more attractiv...
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal
Presidential Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson- Southern Democrat former slave-holder who opposed black suffrage; Pro-Union for state's rights; wanted to pardon Confederates if they took an oath of loyalty towards the Union; free slaves...that's all Lincoln- 10% Plan: state can re-enter Union when 10% of voters in ...
Radical Reconstruction
Efforts made to get South back into the Union Freedmen's Buruea passing of 13th, 14th, 15th ammendments blacks holding office 
Roosevelt Corollary
Add on to Monroe Doctrine [end of colonization in W. Hemisphere] US declares it's hold unilateral right to intervene in affairs of all W. Hemisphere countries international police power prepared to ensure that all W. nations act civilied
White Southerners who voted with Republican Party
White land owners allowed black & poor whites to work for a share of their harvest didn't work well because landowner would cheat works/ sense of supremacy
Social Gospel
applied Christian ethics to social problems inequality, crime, liquor, racial tensions, bad hygiene, child labor, poor education & dangers of war
Susan B. Anthony
National Woman's Suffrage Association Declaration of Rights (women's rights) Anti-Slavey & Temperance
Vertical Integration
Andrew Carnegie's steel industry company owns every aspect of an industry rags to riches life for Carnegie
White Man's Burden
poem by Rudyard Kipling mixed exhortation to empire with sober warnings of the costs involved, characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise rhetorical command to white men to colonize and rule other nations for the benefit of those people pro...
William Jennings Bryan
enemy of Gold Standard Free Silver Anti-Imperialism Trust busting
Yellow Journalism
sensationalized journalism presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings

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