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interspecific interactions
competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis, and facilitation in the relationship between an individual and the community.
Interspecific competition
a (--/--)interaction that occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival.
competitive exclusion
Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to local elimination of the inferior competitor, UNLESS their niches are different.
ecological niche
the sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.
resource partitioning
The differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community.
character displacement
the tendency for characteristics to diverge more in sympatric than in allopatric populations of two species.
Predation
a (+/--) interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey. carnivory herbivory (prey does not always die)
Cryptic coloration
Camouflage--makes prey difficult to see. (prey can also blend in chemically, audibly, and sensory)
aposematic coloration
Animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit bright or warning coloration to scare of predators.
Batesian mimicry
a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful one.
Mullerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.
Symbiosis
An interaction between organisms of 2 different species that involves direct physical contact. parasitism (+/--) mutualism (+/+) commensalism (+/0)
Parasitism
Parasite lives in or on a host (often not lethal). Pathogens and disease causing organisms (generally microscopic, can be lethal)
Commensalism
Not very common. One species benefits, the other is unaffected, like hitchhiking. Includes burs, algae growing on turtle shells. Usually not obligatory--both species can survive without each other.
mutualism
Host and symbiont both benefit. (Plantss and pollinators, plants and frugivores, plants and ants) Relationship often obligatory; can become extremely close. (endosymbionts--species living inside its host)
competition
(--/--) interaction. occurs when two or more species rely on the same resource and the supply of the resource is limited.
Niche
The sum of an organism's use of resources in its environment. How an organism "fits in" to the environment . NO TWO SPECIES IN THE SAME COMMUNITY CAN HAVE THE SAME NICHE. habitat temp. food when it reproduces
Community
A group of populations in the same area or habitat (more than one species).
Trophic structure
Who eats what/whom
Food chains
Simple linear relationship of who eats whom. trophic levels plant-->grazer-->primary consumer-->secondary consumer
Trophic structure
Who eats what/whom.
Food chains
Simple linear relationship of who eats whom. trophic levels plant-->grazer-->primary consumer-->secondary consumer
Food web
More realistic representation of trophic structure --animals eat from multiple trophic areas.

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