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classified species
father of modern geology, discovered that earth changes slowly
noticed extinctions because of catastrophes infossils
noticed that the earth is changing slowly, constantly
evolution occurs when an individual acquires a trait over a lifetime that is passed to offspring (strength, long neck)
Darwin/ Wallace Observations
1. Many different species 2. Fossils resemble current species 3. Geographical gradients of change in species (island differ from mainland) 4. Organisms have traits that match enviro conditions
Founder Effect
a few individuals become isolated from larger pop - establish new gene pool (founders of new island)
Bottleneck Effect
reduce size of original population randomly
Gene Flow
change in allele frequencies between generations due to input of individuals or gametes from other populations
Intrasexual Selection
selection within in the same sex (competition between males)
Intersexual Selection
selection between the 2 sexes (showy males)
Sexual Selection
natural selection that is related to mating success (ornaments, courtship)
Ecological Species Concept
different habitat/niche - can't breed
Morphological Species Concept
look different - can't breed
Biological Species Concept
individuals are members of the same species if they can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Adaptive Radiation
periods of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species (new environment/key adaptation)
movement of organisms away from center of high population density
pattern of spacing among individuals in a pop
Generation Time
average amount of time between the birth of an individual and the birth of its offspring
Aposematic Coloration
bright coloration is warning signal of poisonous chemicals
Life Dinner Principle
prey always adapted to escape predators (have advantage in arms race)
competitive exclusion principle
2 species that share the same limiting resource can't coexist indefinitely, eventually one will go extinct
Character Displacement
tendency for characteristics of sympatric pops to diverge more than allopatric pops (expect greater differences in a trait when 2 species co-occur rather than when either species is by itself)
change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next in a pop
evolution of a new species

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