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Relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs and predispositions to act directed toward some specific or abstract concept.
Job Satisfaction
Individual's degree of positive attitudes toward their current position or work
Career-success orientation
An orientation found in cultures that emphasize acquisition of material possessions and individualism.
Quality-of-life orientation
An orientation found in cultures that emphasize relationships among people and concerns about life quality.
Crucial Incident Technique
A procedure used to study job satisfaction in which participants describe times in which they felt especially satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs.
Hygiene or maintenance factors
Work factors related to conditions surrounding jobs, such as working conditions and pay.
Work factors related to characteristics of the work itself, such as the growth opportunities it provides.
Comparison Level (CL)
the outcome that people think they deserve in a relationship.
Comparison level for alternatives (CLalt)
The outcome that people think can be obtained from the best available alternative.
Life Satisfaction
Individual's level of satisfaction with their lives away from work.
Continuance commitment
An individual's inclination to continue to work for the organization because he or she cannot afford to leave
Affective commitment
A person's desire to stay with the organization because he or she agrees with its policies and wants to remain affiliated with the business.
A strong, affectionate relationship between people.
Sexual Harassment
An unwanted sexual communication.
A negative attitude toward members of a social group.
Negative actions directed toward an individual based on his or her group membership.
Descriptive stereotype
Beliefs concerning how most people in a group behave and what they prefer.
Prescriptive stereotype
Controlling attitudes that tell members of groups how they should think, feel, and behave.
Compensatory Expectations
Expectations that members of groups will " make up" for their stereotypically inconsistent behavior or the inconsistent behaviors performed by other group members.
Job discrimination
Practice including a reluctance to hire, promote, or pay fairly based on a person's group membership.
Social Categorization
Tendency to divide people into groups.
Old-fashioned racism
Obvious forms of prejudice and discrimination, such as slavery and lynch mobs.
Modern Racism
The subtle and indirect forms of prejudice and discrimination that are characteristic of today's world.
Mere Exposure Effect
Increased attraction to a stimulus based on repeated presentations of or exposure to the stimulus.
The physical, psychological, and behavioral reactions experienced by individual in situations where they feel that they are in danger of being overwhelmed-pushed beyond their abilities or limits.
Various aspects of the world around us that contribute to stress.
Expectations that are held about a particular position.
Inter-role conflict
Conflict that occurs when people from different parts of an individual's life have conflicting expectations about that person's role.
Person-role conflict
Conflict between our own expectations and the expectations of others.
Within-role Conflict
Conflict that occurs when people in one area of an individual's life have different expectations.
Quantitative overload
A situation in which individuals are confronted with more work than can be completed in a given period of time
Qualitative Overload
The belief of an employee that he or she lacks the skills or abilities required to perform a specific job.
Quantitative underload
A situation in which individuals have so little to do that they find themselves sitting around much of the time.
Qualitative underload
The lack of mental stimulation that accompanies many routine, repetitious jobs.
The personality dimension based on the outlook that individuals have on life. Those with a positive outlook are optimists, and those with a negative outlook are termed pessimists.
A syndrome resulting from prolonged exposure to stress, consisting of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion plus feelings of low personal accomplishment.
Relaxation Training
Special training in which individuals learn to relax one group of muscles at a time. This, in turn, often causes them to experience a reduction in tension.
A technique for inducing relaxation in which individuals clear disturbing thoughts from their minds and then repeat a single syllable (mantra) over and over again.
The sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work-related activities experienced by individuals over the span of their working lives.
Social Models
individuals who affect the behavior or attitudes of others through their words or deeds, often without any conscious desire to produce such effects.
Human resource planning
Efforts by organizations to make the best possible use of the skills, abilities, and talents of their employees.
Career development
The pattern of changes that occur during an individual's career.
Performance appraisals
Steps undertaken by organizations to provide employees with feedback on their current performance. Detailed and constructive performance appraisals often form part of company-run programs of career management/career development.
Organizational politics
The process through which power and influence are exercised within a given organization. A clear understanding of such politics is necessary for effective career development.
Protean Career
A career that is manged by the individual and guided by that person's own choices and search for fulfillment.
360 Feedback
A method for getting job-related feedback from multiple sources, including peers, supervisors, and subordinates.
Career maturity
The extent to which a person has acquired the physical, psychological, and social qualities to cope with career demands.

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