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Romulus Augustulus
-Ruler of the Western Roman Empire from 475-476 -Last ruler of Rome -Deposed by Odoacer
Great Schism
-in 1054 -Eastern Orthodox Church v. Western Roman Catholic Church -Mutual excommunication of east and west popes -Caused by disagreements over papal authority (who ruled where) -Each group then decided that they were the true Catholic Church, and that the other had left during the ...
-King of the Franks 509-511 -First king of France -Adopted Catholicism; led to a widespread conversion in Frankish people -Started alliance w/ church & kings
-1455-1510 -Italian painter of the early renaissance -Belonged to the Florentine school under the patronage of Medici -Well known for "The Birth of Venus and Primavera" -Seen to represent linear grace of Renaissance art
-Collaborative inventor of the printing press with Fust and Schoffer -1398-1468 -German -First book published was the Bible
-Collaborative inventor of the printing press with Gutenberg and Schoffer -Died c. 1466 -German -Sued Gutenberg and won
-Collaborative inventor of the printing press with Gutenberg and Fust -c. 1425-1503 -German
Conquest of Constantinople
-1453 -The capture of the Eastern Roman Empire by the Ottomans -Marked the end of the Roman Empire -Massive blow to Christianity -Intellectuals fled to Italy, fueling the Renaissance -Before this point, war was more of a gentleman's sport
-Fighting for money; hiring of armies (mercenaries) -Came bc of the invention of gunpowder; anyone could fire a gun, so anyone could be hired as a soldier
-Benefitted the large territorial princes -Hurt nobles -Armies became funded and controlled by Princes
-1473-1543 -Renaissance mathematician and astronomer -Heliocentricity, homogenous universe, finite
Giordano Bruno
-1548-1600 -Italian philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer -Argued that universe was infinite (burned at the stake) -Started out as a monk
-1564-1642 -Demonstrated that Copernicus was right -Built a telescope -Noticed imperfections (sunspots) on sun, observed stars, milky way, universe seemed infinite -Church got mad, he recanted his statements
-Wrote "Geography," which gave locations for c. 80,000 places -Maps were very precise for his time -Extensive notes on techniques of mapmaking -Wanted his readers to add on to his work -Born c. 100 CE
-Cultural movement, "re-birth" -Came after the famine & subsequent black plague (1340s) -Italy: heart of the Renaissance, center of Roman Empire -New love for classic lit, learning, and art
Popolo grasso
-Wealthy merchant classs & urbanized nobles -Italian -13th-15th centuries
Popolo Minuto
-The craftsmen and laborers -Forbidden to organize into guilds -Italy -13th-15th centuries
-Unguilded wool workers -Italian -Revolted in 1378, crushed mercilessly by established guilds -Centered in Florence
-1265-1321 -Wrote Divine Comedy -Divine Comedy follows Virgil through the levels of hell -Italian
-1304-1374 -Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy -Early humanist -"Ascent of Mont Ventoux"
-Study of humans, their interaction, history, philosophy, sociology, policy, gov't, etc -Heavily influenced by the classics -The revival of humanism occurred during the Renaissance
Lorenzo Valla
-Discovered that the Donation of Constantine was forged -Encouraged people to come to a new understanding of history -First modern historian
Renaissance Papacy
-Popes and cardinals were wealthy and lived luxuriously -Many had children and affairs -1417-Reformation
-Rulers, nobles, and very wealthy people used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambitions, social positions, and prestige -Artists needed it to fund their projects -Example: Medici family
Medici Family
-Prominent banking family in Florence -Were patrons for many artists, boosting Florence to the art capital of the world -4 members of the fan became popes, solidifying their power
Henry the Navigator
-Portuguese -Financed exploration down the coast of Africa -Searched for gold, turned into the slave trade (thx Henry)
Vasco de Gama
-Portugese explorer -First European to reach India by sea -Reached southern tip of Africa in 1498
Max Weber
-German -Considered one of the 3 founders of sociology -Focused a lot on the relationship between religion and economics
Babylonian Captivity
-7 consecutive popes resided in France instead of Rome -Conflict btwn the French monarchy and the church -French control and influence of the Papacy influenced the church and gave France more power
Western Schism
-Began at the end of Babylonian Captivity -Split within the Catholic Church from 1378-1418 -2 (later 3) different popes, each with his own following/clergy
-Christian humanism -Wrote "Praise of Folly," played an important role in beginning the Protestant Reformation -Wanted to reform the Catholic church and get rid of all the bad stuff, but wanted to be Catholic -Rejected Luther's emphasis on faith alone -Dutch
Martin Luther
-1483-1546 -German -Began the Protestant reformation in 16th century Europe -95 theses -Excommunicated in 1521
-Female Italian Humanist -Refused to marry in order to continue her education -Debated the story of Adam and Eve
-Humanist -Man had reason and free will -Renaissance nobility was based on virtue -1463-1494
-Wrote about Italian Renaissance artists -1511-1574 -Vasari's fame rests on his massive book: "Life of the Most Eminent Painters"
-Early Protestant Reformer -Broke away from Luther bc he thought Communion was back -Accepted supremacy of the Scriptures, applied it more rigorously to all doctrines/practices -Swiss
The Terror
-A period of violence that occurred with the onset of the French Revolution -Sparked by conflict btwn the Girondins and the Jacobins -The Guillotine is a symbol of the Terroe -Thank you Robespierre
Louis XVI
-Last King of France before the Revolution -Decapitated in 1793 -Married to Marie Antoinette -Tried to escape, was captured
Tennis Court Oath
-3rd estate formed together to form the National Assembly on a tennis court bc they were locked out of the assembly hall -Refused to disband until a new constitution was written -1789 in France
National Assembly
-Formation of the 3rd estate in an effort to create a new constitution -Not recognized by other countries as the ruling organization -Was the revolutionary assembly
Jacques Necker
-King's financer -Supporter of the 3rd estate; people liked him -Fired and jailed, resulted in the storming of the Bastille
Masimilien Robespierre
-Leader of the French Revolution -Encouraged and supported the Terror -Nicknamed "the incorruptible" -Initially had very peaceful ideas: equality, abolition of slavery, universal male suffrage, no death penalty
The Bastille
-Parisan Prison -Symbol of French absolutism -Torn apart brick by brick during the revolution (known as the Storming of the Bastille)
-Didn't believe in infant baptism -Often a persecuted minority -Began in the 16th century
Protestant Reformation
-Sparked by Luther's 95 Theses -Lutherans and Calvinists were the largest Protestant groups that developed almost immediately -Catholic Church tried to confront w/ Counter-Reformation (initiated by the Council of Trent)
-Considered one of the initiators of the Protestant Reformation -French -Trained as a humanist lawyer and broke away from the Catholic Church -Fled to Switzerland to avoid religious persecution
Council of Trent
-1545-1563 -Series of councils specifically for reforming the Catholic church -Created the Jesuits
-Led the Jesuits -Established Jesuits in 1540 -Organized like a military group, but the weapon was education (known for academic excellence)
-People who live in cities, not the country -Represent a movement of greater social mobility -Their location allowed them to get educated and better define their own lives
Peace of Augsburg
-1555 -Treaty that marked the end of brutal religious wars in Germany -"cuius regio, eius religio" -Citizens have to have the religion of their ruler -Many people chose to move to keep their religion -Ultimately led to more stability
80 Years War
-War between the Dutch (Spanish-ruled) and Spanish -Initially Spain held control, but then the Dutch won -Resulted in the Netherlands becoming a sovereign state
-Says: one can hold land in exchange for labor/service/loyalty -9th-15th centuries -Abolished in France due to Revolution -Lingered much longer in Eastern than in Western Europe
-French dynasty -Consisted of Hugh Capet's male line of descendants -Often considered one of the most powerful families in European history -Dominated European politics for nearly 5 centuries
100 Years War
-France v England -Resulted in fuedal armies being replaced by professional ones -First standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire -Echoed ideas of French and English nationalism
-The King has all power -Right to tax, use violence, control bureaucracy -Claim to a divine right by God -Louis XIV: "L'etat, c'est moi!" ("I am the state!")
St. Bartholomew'sMassacre
-Paris, France, 1572 -Huge killing of Huguenots -Happened in France and was ordered by the king -Turning point in religious wars -Convinced Protestants in other countries that Catholicism was violent and bloody
Edict of Nantes
-Allowed Huguenots a greater degree of civil rights -Marked the end of the religious wars in France of the 1500s -Offered Freedom of Conscience, giving rights to Protestants -Issued by Henry IV of France
Henry IV
-Said "Paris is worth a mass" when he converted to Catholicism -Enacted Edict of Nantes -Involved in wars of religion and ended them in France
Treaty of Munster
-(1648) -Provision of the Treaty of Westphalia freeing the Netherlands from Spanish rule -2 treaties
30 Years War
-Territorial -Between city states of the HRE -First major European war between multiple states -Between the Habsburgs and European powers -One of the deadliest: 3-% of Germans died -Ended w Peace of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
-1648 -Ended 30 years war -Lead to balance of power
Jean Bodin
-16th century, French -Believed that absolutism would bring stability to Europe -Best known for his theory of sovereignty; believed that in every state there must be a sovereign group w the power to govern
Thomas Hobbes
-16th-17th century -English -Wrote on the base of the english civil war -Believed that human nature is chaotic, violent, barbaric; humans need gov't and control in order to prosper -Absolutism = social contract which people entered into voluntarily
John Locke
-17th Century -English -Social contract Theory: Purpose of government is to protect life, liberty, and property -People should rise up against government if it fails to provide basic rights; ideas later used in American Revolution
-Exception to absolutism -The Dutch Republic and England maintained a parliamentary tradition -The power of the government is regulated and limited by a body of laws
-Period where cultural and intellectual forces in Europe focused on reason, analysis, and individualism -Challenged traditional authority, promoted by "philosophes" -Supported by Voltaire, Newton, Descartes, Kant
-German philosopher; major figure -"Critique of Pure Reason" -Prominent figure of the Englightenment -18th century
-State of Nature: man is naturally good and peaceful -Society and government corrupt man and lead to violence and suffering -Social Contract: law and community first -From Geneva -18th century
-French enlightenment writer and philosopher -Famous for his wit, attacks on Catholic church, support of religious freedom, freedom of expression, and secularism -Satirist -18th century
French Revolution
English Civil War
-Started in 1640s -Should Parliament have power, or just force the king to listen to them -Charles 1 was taxing people (executed) -Charles 2 was executed when Commonwealth of England was established -Ended w the 1690 Bill of Rights
-German writer and statesman -Famous at a young age for "The Sorrows of Young Werther" -Participant in the "Sturm und Drang" literary movement
Diderot & d'Alenbert
Napoleon Bonaparte
-1802 First Consul for life: Emperor Napoleon I -Rose through ranks of French military -Russian campaign crippled him, lost 500,000 soldiers
1792 War
-France vs. Austria (France won) -Tried to overthrow the revolution in France
the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
-Influenced by Thomas Jefferson -Fundamental document of the French Revolution of human rights -Rights of men are universal and "natural" -Introduced by General LaFayette
"Great Fear"
-French countryside -Period of panic among peasants when they heard rumors of a conspiracy to overthrow the 3rd estate -burned nobles' houses/castles, caused nobles to give up their power = end of feudalism, universal taxes, proportional punishments
-Published radical revolutionary newspaper -Paper enacted violence and massacres of 1st and 2nd estate prisoners -Stabbed to death in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday
Execution of Louis XVI
-January 21, 1793 -"the king is only a man; no man is above the law" -By means of the Guillotine -Occured at Revolution Square in Paris
German Wars of Religion
-Ended at the Peace of Augsburg -Resulted in change in religion and conflict btwn Protestants and Catholics -Political conflicts that were being portrayed as religious
7 Years War
-1754-1763 -Worldwide, affected most major powers -Ended w the Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of Hubertusburg
-Originally used in China for recreation -By the end of the 1300s, firearms were being produced throughout Europe -War was no longer a "gentleman's sport" -Proletarianization & royalization of warfare
Marie Antoinette
-Married to Louis XVI -Never actually said "Let them eat cake" -Born in Austria in 1755 -Executed in Paris by guillotine
-17th-18th century mathematician and philosopher -Strong proponent of optimism -Represented in Candide through the character Pangloss
Enlightened Despotism
New Paternalism
Communal Revolution
Dignity of Man
Bill of Exchange
Rediscovery of the Classics
-Related to the rise of humanism -Humanists valued and looked to the classics to learn about man -A manifestation of humanist ideas

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