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psychopathology (mental illness)
often seen as a failure of adaptation to the environment
failure analysis approach
tries to understand mental illness by examining breakdowns in functioning -looking at what went wrong
5 different conceptions of mental illness
1. statistical rarity 2. subjective distress 3. impairment 4. societal disapproval 5. biological dysfunction
statistical rarity
relatively uncommon in the population, can't be exclusively relied on, not all mental illnesses are uncommon
subjective distress
produce emotional pain, not all distressful conditions are mental illnesses
negatively affect and individuals ability to function normally
societal disapproval
not all things disapproved of by society are mental illnesses (homosexuality)
biological dysfunction
many mental illnesses are a result of a breakdown of physiological systems
labeling theorists
argue diagnoses cause lasting harm
biopsychosocial approach
biological causes, psychological causes, social-cultural causes
predisposition toward a disorder
stressful life event that makes a disorder manifest
2 types of anxiety disorders
cognitive, somatic
cognitive anxiety
anxious apprehension, worry
somatic anxiety
anxious physiological arousal
anxiety disorder
anxiety that is longlasting and disruptive to daily functioning, most prevalent psychological disorders
somatoform disorder
physical symptoms that are psychological in origin, pain, paralysis in part of the body
preoccupation with idea you are sick or have some physical disease
5 main types of anxiety disorders
1. generalized anxiety disorder 2. panic disorder 3. phobias 4. PTSD 5. OCD
generalized anxiety disorder
excessive worrying or anxiety across many areas of life, irritability, sleep problems, inability to concentrate
panic disorder
recurrent panic attacks, chest pain, dizziness, sweating, fear of death, can be associated with specific situation or come randomly
fear of having a panic attack in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarassing
specific phobias
intense fear of objects, places, or situations that is greatly out of proportion to their actual threat
emotional disturbance after you experience or witness a severely stressful event
condition marked by repeated and lengthy immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both
recurrent, intrusive thoughts or images that generate significant distress
repetitive behaviors aimed at preventing or reducing distress
catastrophic thinking
predicting terrible events despite low probability
anxiety sensitivity
a fear of anxiety-related symptoms
mood disorders
characterized by long lasting extremes in mood -depressive disorders -bipolar disorders
prolonged sadness, self blame, sense of worthlessness, absence of pleasure or motivation, thoughts of suicide of death
major depressive disorder
more prevalent in females, can develop gradually or suddenly, recurrent
cyclical or in a cycle
mood or state of mind
bad or ill
under, beneath, below, lack of
learned helplessness
tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can't control -failures = internal -successs = external
personality disorders
should only be diagnosed when personality traits first appear by adolescnece, traits are inflexible, stable, traits lead to distress or impairment
borderline personality disorder
marked by instability in mood, identity, and impulse control, often highly self-destructive -drug abuse -sexual promiscuity -overeating -self mutilation -threatening suicide to manipulate others
psychopathic personality
condition marked by superficial charm, dishonestly, manipulativeness, self-centeredness, and risk taking, overlaps with antisocial personality disorder
antisocial personality disorder
condition marked by lengthy history of irresponsible/illegal actions
dissociative disorders
disorders that involve disruptions in consciousness memory, identity, and perception
depersonlization disorder
feeling detached from yourself, feeling as if youre watching yourself from the outside, only a disorder if it happens frequently
dissociative amnesia
inability to recall personal information following a stressful experience that can't be explained by normal forgetting or trauma
dissociative fugue
sudden, unexpected travel away from home or the workplace, accompanied by amnesia of significant life events, will sometimes just start over
severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality, disturbances in attention, thinking, language, emotion and relationships
symptoms of schizophrenia, strongly held, fixed beliefs with no basis in reality
psychotic symptoms
reflect serious distortions in reality
sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli
word salad and catatonia are common symptoms of...
brain abnormalities of schizophrenia
enlarged ventricles, increases sulci size, hypofrontality
neurotransmitter differences of schizophrenia
abnormalities in dopamine receptors
diathesis stress models
propose that mental illnesses are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability (diathesis) and stressors that trigger it
autistic disorder
marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination, obsessed with certain objects
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
primary problems include inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactivity

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