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Synaptic Terminal
specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells
myelin sheath
fatty tissue; wraps around neuron (like insulation) carries nerve impulses faster.
multiple sclerosis
dismantling of myelin covering of CNS axons by the body's own immune system
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
marked by the gradual degeneration of the nerve cells in the CNS that controls voluntary muscle movement
Action Potential
electrical impulse, primary means of communication
synaptic transmission
process of transmission of impulse from sending across synaptic cleft to receiving target. involves release and diffusion of chemical neruotransmitter
synaptic cleft
space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter
Acetycholine
neruomuscular junctions, autonomic nervous systems, brain excitatory on skeletal muscles; excitatory or inhibitory at other sites, depending on receptors
Serotonin
areas of brain, spinal cord usually inhibitory; involved in moods, sleep cycle, appetite
Dopamine
areas of brain, parts of PNS Excitatory or inhibitory, depending on receptors; plays a rold in emotions
glutamate
areas of brain, spinal cord usually excitatory; major excitatory neurotransmitter
Endorphins
many areas in brain, spinal cord natural opiates that inhibit pain; usually inhibitory
stimulus
sensory input that causes some change within or outside the body (heat, pressure, sound waves, light, chemical)
Receptor
structure that detects stimuli and converts its energy into another form
somatic sensations
arise from receptors located throughout the body (temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, pain, awareness of body position)
special senses
arise from receptors restricted to specific areas of the body (taste, smell, hearing, balance, vision)
mechanoreceptors
detect limb position, muscle length, and tension
thermoreceptors
detect temperature
Pain receptors
signal discomfort
loudness
related to amplitude of sound waves, measured in decibels
pitch (tone)
related to frequency (number of wave cycles/second), higher frequency; higher pitch
Sclera
covers and protects eye ball
Cornea
bends incoming light
iris
adjusts amount of incoming light
lens
regulates focus
retina
absorbs light and converts it into impulses
optic nerve
transmits impulses to brain
myopia
nearsighted eye longer than normal, distant objects focus in front of retina corrected with concave lenses
hyperopia
farsighted eye shorter near objects focus behind retina convex lenses
stigmatism
irregularities in cornea behind lens corrected with speciality ground lenses
sphincters
thick muscular rings that separate some of the organs, holds contents
peristalsis
propels food forward, rapid
segmentation
mixes food back and forth, presses on mucosa, absorb nutrients
chyme
watery mixture of partially digested food and gastric juice that is delivered to the small intestine
pancreas
exocrine functions, secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate
liver
produces bile, which emulsifies lipids, hepatic portal system, metabolic functions (storage, synthesis, and chemical processing)
gallbladder
concentrates and stores bile
Neurons
carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another
Glial cells
support neurons and modify neuronal communication
vision
detects and interprets visual stimuli by converting light energy to nerve impulses and transmitting them to the brain
cortex
outer zone of the kidney
medulla
inner region; defense tissue (renal pyramids)
renal pelvis
urine collects after it is formed
ureter
transports urine to the bladder
urinary bladder
stores urine. consists of three layers of smooth muscle lined on the inside by epithelial cells.
urethra
urine passes through this; single muscular tube that extends from the bladder to the body's external opening
nephron
functional unit of kidney; approx. 1 million; function to produce urine. remove 180 layers of fluid every day and then return almost all of it to the blood
testes
produce sperm
scrotum
out punching of skin and smooth muscle; regulates the temperature of the developing sperm
seminiferous tubules
sperm is produced; within testes
epididymis
single coiled duct just outside testis
epididymis
single coiled duct just outside testis
ductus deferens
joins the duct from the seminal vesicle
seminal vesicles
produce seminal fluid, water mixture containing fructose and prostaglandins that represent 60% of the volume of sperm
prostate gland
contributes an alkaline fluid; helps prevent infections but is too acidic for sperm
bulbourethral glands
secrete mucus into the urethra during sexual arousal; washes away traces of acidic urine and provides lubrication
IVF
in vitro fertilization; fertilization in test tube outside of body
GIFT
gamete intrafallopian transfer; unfertilized eggs and sperm placed directly in oviductw
ZIFT
intrafallopian transfer; fertilized egg is placed in oviduct

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