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Code of Hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. Circa 1780 BC Babylonian Code of Law back in ancient times
King Narmer (Menes)
King Narmar was the first king of the two lands wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt (looks like a bowling pin), and the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. 3100 BC Egypt United Upper and Lower Egypt Tablet symbolic of unification.
Queen Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies; 1508-1458BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. 1508-1458 BC Egypt Co - rule w/ step-son. "Woman King"
Pharaoh Akhenaten
Aten - God of the sun disk Supplanted worship of Amun Monotheism Egypt new Kingdom Amenhotep IV
Island Near Greece known for volcano Eruption 1600 BC North America Tree Ring Data Archaeological Evidence 1500 BC Akrotiri devastation, Saffron Gatherers, Blue Monkeys
Sea People
The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty and especially during year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20t…
Cyrus the Great
A Persian king who overthrew the Babylonians conquered in 539 BC. Persian king, Conquered Babylon in 539 BC Aloud Jews to return to Babylon
A tyrant was originally one who illegally seized and controlled a governmental power in a polis. Benelivant or not. Corinth was a Tyranny. Like dictatorship.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. Small group of elite people. Sparta was an Oligarchy
Democracy is an egalitarian form of government in which all the citizens of a nation together determine public policy, the laws and the actions of their state, requiring that all citizens have an equal opportunity to express their opinion. Athens was a Democracy. Had Magistrates.
Delian league
The Delian League, founded in circa 477 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 to 173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Pe…
Peloponnesian League
The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC. 431-403 BC Sparta and Allies. Fought against Delian League (Greece)
A magnificent orator with a reputation for scrupulous honesty, Pericles deepened and extended the reforms that Cleisthenes had set in motion some 50 years before. 461-431 BC Made Changes, 451 BC Athens Made citizenship more exclusive and raised status of Athenian women.
Radical Democracy
Male Citizens participated actively in governing and voted not only to elect leaders but also to set policy and enforce justice. Direct participation by male citizens. 479-431 BC Athens Punishment for corruption, equal protection under law, Generals can be elected unlimited # of times…
Athenian Acropolis
The Acropolis of Athens or Citadel of Athens is the best known acropolis. 400 BC Athens Meaning Prominent hill, it served as a special sanctuary for the gods and as a fortress to which the population could retreat when an enemy attacked. Persians burned the building on the acropolis i…
Thucydides, son of Melesias () was a prominent politician of ancient Athens and the leader for a number of years of the powerful conservative faction. 455-399 BC Athens A general and one of the most famous historians. Responsible for establishing western civilization's tradition of his…
Socrates of Athens, The most famous philosopher of the Golden Age. 469-399 BC Athens Taught ethics and justice - Contrast to Sophists. Teacher of Critias - Leader of Thirty tyrants
He was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. 429-347 BC Athens Plato Questioned democracy, because men are created unequa…
Aristotle (384 BC- 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. 384-322 BC Athens Reason based on observation, Denies Plato's forms. Thinks middle-class should lead, thinks that current can be corrupt.
Successor Kings
Three major Hellenistic kingdoms arose from the division of Alexander's empire after his death. 382-281 BC Antigonus - Anatolia (Near East, Macedonia, and Greece) Seleucus - Babylon and the East as far as India Ptolemy - Egypt. Self-declared monarchs.
Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. People north of the Tiber River. Dominated Rome in the 6th Century BC Influenced Rom a lot, Architecture, Divination, Death Masks, Funeral Processions…
The Rape of the Sabine Women
The Rape of the Sabine Women is an episode in the legendary history of Rome in which the first generation of Roman men acquired wives for themselves from the neighboring Sabine families. Beginning of Rome. Geographically inclusionary. Women stopped the war cause they were treated well.…
The Rape of Lucretia
509 BC Monarchy put down and establishment of the Roman Republic. Elite fear of abuse of power, King Tarquin's son Raped Lucretia. 509 BC Lucius Junius Brutus expelled Tarquin. Lucretia killed herself after.
Mos Maiorum
The mos maiorum is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms. Literally means "Way of the Ancestors" Old-fashioned meant good because tested by long experience. Ancestors handed down their values from ancient times, those values were Mos maiorum.
patria potestas
The head of a Roman family. Power over children of any age and slaves. Gave him legal ownership of all property acquired by his dependents. As long as he was alive no son or daughter could own anything, make money or possess any independent legal standing.
Twelve Tables
Struggle of the orders caused The Law of the Twelve Tables, which was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. 509-287 BC A list of Roman Laws
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were Roman plebeian nobiles who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC. Agrarian reform, power to popular assembly, and citizenship to Latin Communities. Senate's authority lessened, plebeian assembly as alternate center of power, eq…
Populares were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power. Supporters of the common people. Originated from the violent deaths of the Gracchus brothers. Members of the elite divided themselves into two …
The optimates were the traditionalist majority of the late Roman Republic. The supporters of the best people. Originated from the violent deaths of the Gracchus brothers. Members of the elite divided themselves into two groups. Populares and Optimates.
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar (100BC - 44BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. A part of the first triumvirate. Then Emerged as ruler. Friends with Cleopatra (partnership) Cancelled debts, did public works, expansion of citizenship, senate reform - 600 …
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek, 69 BC - 30 BC) was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Had a romance with Warrior Mark Antony lasting for some time. Egypt partner of Rome at this time. Cleopatra's not Egyptian by blood.
Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
Augustus was born into an equestrian family as Gaius Octavius at Rome on 23 September 63 BC. 31 BC Octavian killed Marc Antony at the battle of Actium Greece. Was a part of the 2nd Triumvirate, which included Marc Antony Became Principate of Rome. Augustas of Prima Porta Decendant of…
Princeps is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person." Traditionally was an honorary title for the leading senator.
Pontifex Maximus
The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome. High priest, a position that all the emperors since Augustus had Filled.
Pax Romanum
Pax Romana was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Roman Peace Till the 3rd Century AD
Forum romanum
The Roman Forum is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. A gathering place for religious rituals and ceremonies marking the passage into adulthood of upper-class boys.
Praetorian Guard
The Praetorian Guard was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors. 27 BC-14 AD Stationed soldiers in Rome itself, first of its kind. Prevented rebellion in the capital and provided an imperial bodyguard, a visible reminder of the emperor's dominance.
Queen Boudicca
Part of the Celtic tribe Iceni and was a warrior who killed over 70,000 Romans. 43 AD Went into Rome. Burned Colchester, London, and Verulanium.
Titus Flavius Josephus (37 - 100), was a 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian and hagiographer of priestly and royal ancestry who recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the 1st century AD and the First Jewish-Roman War, which resulted in the Destruction of Jerusalem and its temp…
Apocalypticism is the religious belief that there will be an apocalypse, a term which originally referred to a revelation of God's will, but now usually refers to belief that the world will come to an end time very soon, even within one's own lifetime. End of present cosmos. Establishme…
Dura Europos
Dura-Europos, also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment 90 m above the right bank of the Euphrates river. Coexisting together, village.
Mithra is the Persian god of light and wisdom. Mithras was worshiped in Rome by soldiers. A poorly known Roman cult because almost no texts exist to explain it. Derived perhaps as late as the early imperial period. Victory, soldiers, merchants.
Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. This cult reveals how polytheism could provide believers with a religious experience demanding a moral way of life and arousing strong personal emotions. Being known as a kind…
Neoplatonism (), is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists, with its earliest contributor believed to be Plotinus, and his teacher Ammonius Saccas. Religious ideas cen…
Ended the notion of princeps. 285-305 AD Eliminated power sharing w/senate, Son of Jupiter, Autocratic. Great Persecution, 303 - Expelled Christians, seized properties, and tore down churches. Wage and price controls, 301 Career restrictions - Made Tenant Farmers hereditary - Propert…
Diocletian and Maximian Abdicated 305. Constantius D. 306. Son of constantatin claimed power.
Emperor as demi-god. 272-337 AD Re-used past monuments. Arch of Constantine - Sun God - Sol - Constantine's Favorite. Donated to the people. Free choice of religion - blending religions together.
Edict of Milan
The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine I and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. 313 AD Referred to the empire's protection by "the highest divinity."
Council of Nicea
In 323 Council condemned writings of Arius. The Nicene Creed: Son was "one in being with the Father." Nature of Jesus was what the council was about.
Augustine of Hippo
Lived 345-430 Author of City of God, 413-426 Christians not responsible for the sack of Rome )410) Ideal State. Advocated no sex as the purest choice for Christians because he believed that Adam and Eve's disobedience had forever ruined the original harmony that God had created betwee…
Aurelius Symmachus
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 345 – 402) was a Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters. Symmachus sought to preserve the traditional religions of Rome at a time when the aristocracy was converting to Christianity.

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