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Sex-linked genes
any gene located on a sex choromosome
Genotype 
an organism's alleles
phenotype
the trait an organism shows
homozygous dominant
2 dominant alleles 
heterozygous
1 dominant, 1 recessive alleles 
Heterozygous 
Two alleles in the gene pair are different. 
homozygous recessive
2 recessive alleles 
carriers 
1 recessive allele for disease, no symtoms 
crossing over
exchange of genetic mateiral between homologous chromosome
nondisjunction
members of chromosome pair fail to sperate in meiosis 
zygote
a fertilized egg
placenta
an organ formed by mom's body and embryo
placenta 
develops the uterus 
egg formation 
begins in the female fetus and pauses until puberty 
Codon 
3 RNA base group that codes for a specific amino acid. 
Transcription 
DNA to RNA 
Translation 
RNA to proteins 
Parsimony 
Always trying to fidn the simplest explanation or description of events. 
Convergence 
When things are simlar but DID NOT come from a common ancestor. 
Homozygous 
Two alleles in the gene pair are the same. (RR) (rr) 
Short Tandem Repeats 
DNA scattered throughout the genome that do not code for genes. 
Phytoremediation 
Use of plants to clena up environmental pollution. 
Eutrophication 
Increasing rates of plant growth and ecay due to excessive amount of nutrients.
Food Chain 
Primary-Secondary-Tertiary-Quaternary. 
Biomagnification 
Concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of ingesting other plants or animals. 
Ecology 
Scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. 
Abiotic 
Nonliving components. (Rainfall, temp, sunlight)
abiotic 
nonliving components 
Biotic 
living components (humans, plants, fungi.)
biotic 
living components 
Habitat 
place where an organism normally lives. 
Maximum sustainable yield 
removing as many individuals as possible from a population without impairing its growth. 
Populations carrying capacity 
population size at which growth is zero. 
Growth rate would reach its carrying capacity because:
-Food supply -Habitat for living and breathing -parasite and disease risk -predation risk"
Restriction Enzymes 
naturally occuring enzymes are used to cut DNA 
Electrophoresis
DNA fragments that are sorted by size 
Decomposers
bacteria eat these dead organisms and teh more dead organisms there are, the greater the bacteria growth. 
Nitrogen & Phosphorus 
Nutrients that are beneficial to plants but can also act as an pollutant. 
Introduced Species 
may not have predators in its new home that can eat it, whic may allow it to grow out of control. 
Biology 
Scientific study of life 
Life 
Characteristics of living things
Science 
A way of knowing
Hypothesis 
statement; must be testable and falsifiable. 
What do you do once you have a hypothesis?
Devise a testable prediction
Theories 
Broad ideas supported by alot of evidence 
Dependent Variable 
The response variable you are measuring 
Independent Variable 
the predictor variable that is resposible for the variation
Sample Size 
Number of subjects in experimental groups and in control groups. 
Sample size
The number of subjects in the control group OR the number of subjects in the experimental group
Cell Theory 
all living things are composed of cells and arise from previously existing cells 
Prokaryotic Cells 
in bacteria and archaea, smaller, and has no nucleus. 
Eukaryotic Cells 
in all other organisms, larger, more complex, has a nucleus. 
Producers
make food using light energy from the sun in photosynthesis 
Consumers 
eat other organisms for food. 
Equation for photosynthesis 
sunlight, water, carbon dioxide - oxygen and sugar. 
Equation for Cellular respiration 
oxygen, sugar - carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
Importance of ATP
stores energy that can be used for cellular work
Recommended Calorie intake for inactive women and elderly
1600
calorie intake for active women and inactive men 
2200
calorie intake for active men 
2800
BMI
body mass index 
Carbohydrates 
main energy souce made up of simple sugars. 
where are carbohydrates found 
fruits, vegetables, and grains. 
Carbohydrates
our main energy source
Saturated fat 
has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons. 
what shape tail does saturated fat have 
straight 
what shape tail does unsaturated fat have 
kinky 
Unsaturated fat 
has at least one carbon to carbon double bond 
Cholesterol 
the base steroid from which our bodies produce other steroids. 
Functions of Proteins 
1. main structural component of life 2. assist in chemical reactions 3. made up of amino acids "
Do energy drinks provide energy? 
no. 
DNA 
double helix made up of two strands of sugars, phosphates, and a nitrogen containing base  
DNA
A type of molecule that provides directions for building proteins
What are the three parts of a nucleotide? 
1. sugar 2. phosphate 3. nitrogen-containing base
Mutation
Any change in the order of bases on a strand of DNA. 
Causes of mutation 
1. harmful conditions 2. certain viruses 3. errors while copying DNA 4. inheritance (only in sex cells)
Embryonic stem cells 
from IVF, umbilical chords, cloning 
Adult stem cells 
fewer/ no ethical problems, mainly found in bone marrow. 
Adult stem cells 
fewer/ no ethical problems, mainly found in bone marrow. 
Genome 
a complete set of an organisms DNA 
Genetic engineering 
manipulation of organisms genes 
GMO 
organism that carries recombinant DNA 
Haploid cell
a cell that has only one of each chromosome 
diploid cell 
cell that has a set of homologous chromosomes 
homologous chromosomes 
two chromosomes that make up a matching pair 
autosomes 
chromosomes that carry all traits not related to gender 
Benign Tumor 
an abnormal mass of cells that stays in place 
malignant tumors 
lumps of cancerous cells 
cancer treatments 
1. surgery 2. radiation therapy 3. chemotherapy
Mistakes in meiosis 
lead to disorders like down syndrome
Process of evolution 
a change over many generations in teh relative frequency of alleles that occur in a population 
theory of evolution 
all species are decendents of a single common ancestor
charles darwin 
provided evidence for evolution 
natural selection 
leads to improvements over time with an increase in favorable traits 
founder effect 
when some individuals leave their main population and form a new small colony elsewhere. 
bottleneck effect 
when a population has had a drastic reduction in size 
gene flow 
when individuals mate with members of a different population 
species 
populations of organisms that are able to interbreed with eachother, but not able to with individuals of other species 
what influences where organisms live? 
abiotic factors 
population carrying capactiy 
population size at which growth is zero 
community 
group of species living close enough together for potential interactions 
niche 
ways an organism uses the environment 
behavioral defenses 
1. hiding or escaping 2. fighting back
parasitism 
a relationship in which one organism benefits teh other is harmed 
mutualism 
an interaction between two speceis that benefits both partners 
keystone species 
a species whose presence greatly influences which other species are present 
biodiversity
the variety of life on earth 
causes of biodiversity 
habitat destruction, introduced species, overexpolitation, effects of pollution
factors that influence biodiversity 
solar energy available, evolutionary history available 
mass extinctions 
large number of species become extinct over a short period of time due to extraordinary and sudden environmental change 
What are the first 3 steps in the process of science?
Observation, question, hypothesis
Describe scientific hypotheses.
It must be testable, falsifiable, and a statement (not a question).
What do you do once you have a prediction?
Conduct a critical experiment
2 main scientific approaches to testing predictions:
Descriptive, & Experimental
What is the descriptive approach?
inductive reasoning
What is the Experimental approach?
deductive reasoning
What is inductive reasoning?
Specific to general
What is  deductive reasoning?
General to specific
What happens after you test your prediction?
Draw conclusions and make revisions
Can you ever prove a hypothesis to be correct?
No
What factors must be present for science to study a phenomenon?
Ability to be observed, repeatability
basal metabolic rate
the amount of energy you expend in a day
Do genetics influence metabolic rate?
Yes
What BMI suggests a person is underweight?
below 18.5
What BMI suggests a person is at a healthy weight?   
18.5 to 25
What BMI suggests a person is overweight?
Above 25
What BMI suggests a person is obese?
above 30
What is diabetes?
the body cannot produce enough or any insulin
Type II diabetes
insulin resistance
What does the plasma membrane do?
The plasma membrane contains molecules for: - binding to chemicals outside the cell - giving each cell a fingerprint - helping substances pass into/out of cell - speeding up chemical reactions
Nucleus
Contains DNA, a type of molecule that provides directions for building proteins built by ribosomes
Ribosomes
Where proteins are built in the cytoplasm, do most of the work in the cell
Organelles
Each has a specific function, most are enclosed by membranes, most are found in plant and animal cells
Only found in plant cells:
chloroplasts, cell wall (can be found in bacteria), and vacuoles (occasionally found in animal cells)
_____ make food using light energy from the sun in photosynthesis.
Producers
_____ eat other organisms for food.
Consumers
Chloroplasts
Only found in plant cells, the organelles that perform photosynthesis
Input during photosynthesis:
Sunlight + water + CO2
Output during photosynthesis:
Oxygen + sugar
Stomata
CO2 enters leaves through stomata; tiny pores usually on lower surface of leaves
True or false: the only producers are plants.
FALSE
When plants grow, where does the new tissue come from?
Air
Mitochondria
Where food is converted to cellular energy
Cellular respiration input:
oxygen + sugar
Cellular respiration output:
CO2 + H20 + energy (ATP)
Aerobic processes require...
oxygen
True or false: creation of ATP is critical for survival.
TRUE
Are organisms that do not undergo photosynthesis influenced by it? 
Yes
ATP is an abbreviation for...
Adenosine Tri-Phosphate
What characteristics do all lipids share?
They are hydrophobic
Hydrophobic
fear of water, don’t mix with water
Examples of lipids
fats, sterols, phospholipids, & wax
Functions of fat
long-term energy storage, cushions vital organs, insulates the skin
Indigestible Carbohydrates
Cellulose and chitin (2 polysaccharides)
Monosaccharides
simple sugars
Polysaccharides
complex carbohydrates
hydrophilic
“water loving”. They adhere quickly to water.
Which  Polysaccharides are healthiest to eat?
fruits, vegetables, whole grains
3 main categories of polysaccharides
starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Starch (definition and examples)
potatoes, rice, corn, how plants store excess energy
glycogen
how animals store excess energy
cellulose
main component of the cell wall
Why do we eat fiber?
Cannot be digested or absorbed but good for digestive tract
How do animals break down food?
They have microorganisms in their stomach that break down the food for them.
True or false: trans fats are natural
FALSE
Is trans fat healthy?
no
Why does the food industry see hydrogenation as an advantage?
It makes the food solid at room temperature
How are trans fats created?
Through hydrogenation
Sterols
regulate growth and development
Examples of sterols
testosterone and estrogen
Anabolic steroids & their effects
Synthetic form of testosterone; mimics some of testosterone’s effects, can cause serious physical and mental problems
Enzymes
proteins that assist in chemical reactions
What are some of the functions proteins perform?
Main structural component of life, protective, regulatory, contractile, transport
What are proteins made of?
A bunch of smaller units called amino acids
How many kinds of common amino acids are there?
20 common kinds of amino acids
What determines the shape of a protein?
Each unique sequence of amino acids leads to a different shape protein
What happens if excessive amounts of cholesterol accumulate in our blood?
they can bind together and block arteries
Essential amino acids
those that must be acquired through diet
If something is "cholesterol free", does that mean eating it will not raise your cholesterol?
No, if you eat fatty foods that have components of cholesterol, your body can synthesize cholesterol itself.
What is caffeine?
A stimulant that increased heart rate and blood pressure
True or false: people may become less sensitive to the effects of caffeine over time
TRUE
true or false: stimulant effect is not the same for every person
TRUE
biotechnology
Organisms, cells, and their molecules can be modified to achieve practical benefits
What is one emphasis of modern biotechnology?
Genetic engineering
What is genetic engineering and what can you do with it?
Manipulation of organisms’ genes. Can add, delete, or move genes from one species to another.
Another tool is to amplify the DNA.  Describe what happens during the amplify step.  Make sure to name the technique that is used.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a technique that copies DNA. Use to get lots of copies of DNA from even tiny samples.
Describe what happens during the insertion tool of the methods used in modern biotechnology.
"Insert DNA of interest into DNA of bacteria or virus. - Both easily incorporate foreign DNA and can act as vector to pass DNA to other species."
How do we use the bacteria or viruses with foreign DNA?
Can produce lots of bacteria/viruses that will transcribe & translate foreign gene to make protein of interest. OR Use bacterial plasmid or virus to insert DNA of interest into another species.
What is a genetically modified organism?
An organism that carries recombinant DNA
What is another name for a genetically modified organism?
Transgenic organism
What is the abbreviation for genetically modified organism?
GM
What are two ways in which biotechnology is used to improve human health?
To produce better medicines or to cure diseases (called gene therapy)
Describe an example of how we have used biotechnology to develop better treatments for diabetes.
- previously injected insulin from cattle or pigs - now made by GM bacteria
What is used to make vaccines?
DNA technology
What is a vaccine and how does it work?
A harmless form of bacteria or virus. Body makes specific defense that can fight off future harmful forms.
Describe human gene therapy.
Seeks to cure disease by inserting a functional gene into an individual’s cells that have a defective version.
Describe severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).
- caused by defective genes in immune cells in bloodstream - patients must avoid infection
Describe the difficulties associated with the use of gene therapy.
- Getting the functional gene into the cells where it is needed. - Getting the functional gene into enough cells. - Viruses/bacteria infecting unintended cells. - Can still pass disease to offspring.
How is gene therapy used to cure SCID?
1. Remove immune system cells from patient 2. Infect the cells w/ a virus carrying the normal allele 3. Return cells carrying the normal allele
What is the advantage of genetically modified agricultural crops?
It can increase: - shelf life - yield (the amt. you produce) - nutritional value Also may reduce need for pesticides
What proportion of crops in the U.S. are genetically modified?
Corn: 86% Cotton: 93% Soybeans: 93%
Are genetically modified crops controversial?
Yes

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