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Teaching and Learning Process (2 pages)

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Teaching and Learning Process

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There are many theories that have been developed by psychologists about the teaching and learning process. There are theories which explain how language develops, how people possess different types of intelligences and how people learn (Woofolk, 2007). Such theories include the behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism, social and humanism perspectives. The humanistic theory was developed as a form of opposition towards the behaviourism view. The assumptions of behaviourism were deemed “dehumanizing” by humanists, hence leading it to be rejected by them (McLeod, 2015). Moreover, humanists disagreed with the behaviourism theory as it did not elaborate on aspects such as traits, attitudes, values, passion, and morals that distinguishes humans from animals (Rahil Mahyuddin & Habibah Elias, 2008). This essay would focus on the humanistic theory from Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers’ perspective and how it has been implemented in the Malaysian education system. Maslow asserts that certain needs need to be met first before higher needs can be satisfied (Santrock, 2008). According to him, individuals’ needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem and self- actualization. The physiological needs include hunger, thirst and sleep, while safety needs include protection and survival. Humans also need security, affection and attention from others, while esteem needs is about feeling good about oneself. Self-actualization is the realization of one’s potential and many have not reached this stage. When all the needs are fulfilled, the individual would work on developing their potentials and expressions (Mok Soon Sang, 2008). Hence, students’ need for food must be satisfied first before they are able achieve something. Maslow’s view manages to provide reasons of why students who came from abusive and poor backgrounds are more likely to perform poorly in school than students whose basic needs are met (Santrock, 2008). Maslow’s theory has been implemented to a certain extent in Malaysian schools. This is because children can only achieve if their basic needs are fulfilled. Hence the government took some initiative to fulfil the students’ needs. According to the Eleventh Malaysia Plan, educational assistances such as Kumpulan Wang Amanah Pelajar Miskin (KWAPM), where students receive money for school necessities, and Rancangan Makanan Tambahan (RMT), where students benefitted from additional food, were given to students who have financial difficulties, so that their lowest basic needs are fulfilled. Next, as movement is natural for children (Koster, 2009), students are allocated time for doing physical activities, which is during Physical Education at school. Furthermore, teachers are generally caring towards their students, such as praising them when they achieve something,catering to the students’ need of affection and attention. The learning theory proposed by Carl Rogers (as cited in Mok Soon Sang, 2008) has several important characteristics which some of it has been implemented in the education system. One of the characteristics is the logical-phenomenon experience. He asserts that one’s experience can only be understood and felt by one’s self. Next, he said that unique concepts would be formed by individuals as they go through their value system and self- belief. ...


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