Teaching and Learning Process


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There are many theories that have been developed by psychologists about the teaching and learning process There are theories which explain how language develops how people possess different types of intelligences and how people learn Woofolk 2007 Such theories include the behaviourism cognitivism constructivism social and humanism perspectives The humanistic theory was developed as a form of opposition towards the behaviourism view The assumptions of behaviourism were deemed dehumanizing by humanists hence leading it to be rejected by them McLeod 2015 Moreover humanists disagreed with the behaviourism theory as it did not elaborate on aspects such as traits attitudes values passion and morals that distinguishes humans from animals Rahil Mahyuddin Habibah Elias 2008 This essay would focus on the humanistic theory from Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers perspective and how it has been implemented in the Malaysian education system Maslow asserts that certain needs need to be met first before higher needs can be satisfied Santrock 2008 According to him individuals needs must be satisfied in the following sequence physiological safety love and belongingness esteem and selfactualization The physiological needs include hunger thirst and sleep while safety needs include protection and survival Humans also need security affection and attention from others while esteem needs is about feeling good about oneself Self actualization is the realization of one s potential and many have not reached this stage When all the needs are fulfilled the individual would work on developing their potentials and expressions Mok Soon Sang 2008 Hence students need for food must be satisfied first before they are able achieve something Maslow s view manages to provide reasons of why students who came from abusive and poor backgrounds are more likely to perform poorly in school than students whose basic needs are met Santrock 2008 Maslow s theory has been implemented to a certain extent in Malaysian schools This is because children can only achieve if their basic needs are fulfilled Hence the government took some initiative to fulfil the students needs According to the Eleventh Malaysia Plan educational assistances such as Kumpulan Wang Amanah Pelajar Miskin KWAPM where students receive money for school necessities and Rancangan Makanan Tambahan RMT where students benefitted from additional food were given to students who have financial difficulties so that their lowest basic needs are fulfilled Next as movement is natural for children Koster 2009 students are allocated time for doing physical activities which is during Physical Education at school Furthermore teachers are generally caring towards their students such as praising them when they achieve something catering to the students need of affection and attention The learning theory proposed by Carl Rogers as cited in Mok Soon Sang 2008 has several important characteristics which some of it has been implemented in the education system One of the characteristics is the logical phenomenon experience He asserts that one s experience can only be understood and felt by one s self Next he said that unique concepts would be formed by individuals as they go through their value system and selfbelief Moreover he asserts that one would behave according to their own self concept and belief Lastly he advocates that one s behaviour can only be understood through communication Based on these characteristics of Rogers theory it can be summarised that Rogers think that children can learn better by doing hands on projects where they are the ones experiencing and doing it by themselves This statement is also supported by Parsons 2013 where he opinionated that Teaching best done wherein the student is central learning is personalized The humanistic approach according to Rogers principles has been implemented to a certain extent in Malaysia Nowadays the 21st century teaching and learning approach has been integrated throughout schools in this nation This approach is student centred the teacher would only act as the facilitator while the students gather and present the information under their teachers guidance Through this approach also students different learning styles are catered to and they would be more motivated and responsible in their learning as they are the ones who have to gather and present the information Nichols 2015 Hence the implementation of the 21st century is in line with the humanistic theory where the main aim education is the facilitation of learning Moreover Rogers believed that if teachers could create a supportive learning environment children would learn to love learning as cited in Scale 2012 Besides the introduction of new subjects which requires the students to be actively involved such as Reka Bentuk dan Teknologi and the assimilation of more hands on activities in other subjects such as Science and English in the primary schools would help them to learn better as well as nurturing their love of learning In conclusion based on the humanistic perspective teachers should be more aware of their students needs and be caring towards them Teachers should not focus on content teaching only but also focus on building a good relationship with their students to develop their love of learning Moreover teachers should create an environment where the students feel that it is safe to make mistakes so that they are not afraid to try again Hence Malaysian schools should incorporate more of the elements of the humanistic theory so that the students potential could be further developed 866 words

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