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Social Process Theories



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Social Process Theories Social Learning Theory Social Control Theory Labeling Theory Social Process These are MICRO theories Need both micro and macro for a complete explanation of crime Process individual interacting with social units or agencies over time Social Learning Theory Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Albert Bandura Akers With Burgess Differential Reinforcement Social Learning Theory Gerald Patterson Social Interactional Theory Edwin Sutherland Degree in Sociology from the University of Chicago 1913 Faculty member 1930 1935 Chicago School question how are delinquent cultures transmitted across generations Answer Differential Association Published and revised in his textbook from 19341947 Differential Association Criminal Behavior is learned Negatively this means it is not invented Communication within intimate groups Learning involves techniques and attitudes Attitudes expresses as definitions of the situation A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to law violation The process involves the same learning process as all other behavior Differential Association This is a GENERAL theory Explains white collar crimes as well as street crimes Very abstract and vague What are definitions What are the mechanics of learning Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory 1973 Pulled together principles of learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Vicarious learning Ronald Akers Brought differential association in line with psychological principles of learning Differential Reinforcement theory Now Social Learning Theory Central Concepts Differential Association Attitudes Toward Crime Reinforcement Imitation role modeling Testing Social Learning Surveys Theory tested with 2 variables Exposure to Deviant Peers Attitudes Favorable Towards Crime Variables consistently predict deviance but causal order is questionable Testing Social Learning II Experimental Studies Don Andrews 1980 group therapy experiments Token Economies



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