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Integrated Evolutionary Processes Constraints and Trade offs



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Integrated g Evolutionary y Processes Constraints and Trade offs What causes natural selection Differences among genotypes in fitness What are the components of fitness Survival Mating success Number of offspring What would the perfect organism be like Mature at birth continuously produce high quality offspring in large numbers numbers and live forever forever Why y is this impossible p Trade offs Natural selection has engineered all organisms to perform the ultimate task to reproduce Radically R di ll varying i patterns tt Mature early and reproduce quickly vs mature late and reproduce slowly Annual plants bloom once vs many trees that flower for decades Bivalves produce enormous number of tiny eggs other produce a smallll number b off llarge eggs One goal of evolutionary studies of life history is to understand the diversity in reproductive strategies Blue whale Single offspring weight of adult elephant Grows to adult size on milk ilk iin 6 months th Mother can t eat during this time because in there is low food availability in tropical waters but also low risk of predation Bats Largest offspring for body size in mammals Pipistrellus pipistrellus t i weigh twins i h 50 off mother th Mother flies and feeds while pregnant p g Kiwi Lays a single egg that weighs 25 of mother s mother s body weight Kiwi is same size as a chicken but egg is 5x bigger Oyster Release 10 50 million eggs in one spawn 50 55 50 55 m Clam 100 eggs 300 m Orchids 1 000 000 000 seeds the size of fungal g spores P l Palm Few dozen nuts per year Each weighs several kilograms Trade offs Trade offs Trade offs costs paid in the current of fitness when a beneficial change in one trait is linked to a detrimental change in another If there th was no selection l ti allll ttraits it correlated l t d with ith fitness would be maximized and only limited by history and design Trade offs constrain the range of phenotypes that may be produced Other sources of constraint Biomechanical physiological constraint



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