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UGA BIOL 1108 - Chemical Signals

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BIOL 1108 1nd Edition Lecture 17 Outline of Last Lecture I. Learning Objectives II. Excretory System Function Overview III. FunctionsIV. Blood Filtrate to Urine V. Regulation Outline of Current Lecture I. Learning ObjectivesII. Major Communication and Control Systems III. Endocrine SystemIV. Reproduction and Development V. Hormone Evolution VI. AIS Current LectureI. Learning Objectives 1. Be able to:- Describe an endocrine system and how it works- Compare and contrast posterior and anterior pituitary endocrine signaling- Describe tropic and non-tropic hormones- Know biological processes regulated by the endocrine system- Think about how hormones affect our everyday lives- Compare and contrast endocrine and nervous systems- Describe pheromone signaling II. Major Communication and Control SystemsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Nervous Systemb. Endocrine SystemIII. Endocrine System- An internal system of communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on and in target cells that respond to hormoneso Signaling between cellso Typically long-distance Short distance: local regulators- Hormoneso In multicellular organismso Secreted chemicalo Formed in specialized cellso Travel in body fluids (blood or hemolymph)o Act on specific target cells in other parts of the bodyo Change target cell functioning- Hormones secreted by the endocrine system regulate:o Reproductiono Developmento Energy metabolismo Growtho Behavioro Homeostasis - Major Human Endocrine Glandso Pineal gland Biological rhythmso Hypothalamus Master gland Production and release of posterior pituitary hormoneso Pituitary gland Numerous functionso Thyroid gland and Parathyroid glands Regulate metabolism and Ca levels Stimulates and maintains metabolic functions- Temperature regulations A goiter develops when there is not enough iodine - If there is not enough iodine it negates a negative feedback loop by signaling the thyroid it needs the hormone. The response and stimulus will continueo Thymus Immunityo Adrenal glands Flight or fights response increases blood pressure, breathing rate, metabolic rate, and glucose. Corticoid levels can be measured  Tradeoff: wear you down, suppression of immune systemo Pancreas Blood sugar levelo Ovary/ Testis Reproduction IV. Reproduction and Development 1. Neurosecratory cells secrete prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)2. PTTH signal production of ecdysteroid3. Ecdysteroid secretion is episodic, stimulates a molt4. Juvenile Hormone determines result of molt. Absence of JH results in pupation- Growth Hormoneso During adolescenceo Hypersecretion: makes people taller, more hormone than normalo Hyposecretion: too little secretion of hormone, shorter than average depends on timing and amount of secretionV. Hormone Evolutiona. Endorphinsi. Affects pain receptors in the brainii. The evolutionary basis for blocking pain is to outrun or chase somethingb. Prolactini. Birds: regulates fat metabolism and reproductionii. Fish: salt and water balanceiii. Humans: milk synthesisc. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)i. Amphibians: skin colorii. Fish: skin coloriii. Reptiles: skin coloriv. Humans: skin color and hunger/ metabolism d. Pheromonesi. External chemical signalingii. The common garden ant is a social ant that communicates location of food with pheromone trails iii. Female Gypsy moths produce pheromones for males to detect VI. AIS a. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (XY)b. Sometimes a small change in the amino acid sequence can alter the shape of protein receptorc. Then chemical signals like insulin, steroids, or hormones will not properly bind to the receptor and cellular processes such as gene activation will not take placed. 1 in 99,000 cases (not very


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