MIT 8 882 - Particle Detectors Overview (29 pages)

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Particle Detectors Overview



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Particle Detectors Overview

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Pages:
29
School:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Course:
8 882 - LHC Physics: Experimental Methods and Measurements

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8 882 LHC Physics Experimental Methods and Measurements Particle Detectors Overview Lecture 3 February 11 2009 Physics Colloquium Series The Physics Colloquium Series Thursday February 12 at 4 15 pm in room 34 101 Jochen Schneider LCLS Experimental Facilities Division SLAC CA and Center for Free Electron Laser Science CFEL Germany Science at SASE Free Electron Lasers For a full listing of this semester s colloquia please visit our website at web mit edu physics 09 Spring Organizational Issues Accounts please make sure you have one so we can get started Teaching assistant I will be the TA Recitation Friday at 10 00pm in 24 507 C Paus LHC Physics Particle Detectors Overview 3 Lecture Outline Particle Detectors Overview introduction and a bit of history general organization of detectors particle interactions with matter tracking calorimetry modern integrated detectors conclusions and next lecture C Paus LHC Physics Particle Detectors Overview 4 Motherhood and Apple Pie The ultimate goal of particle detectors is to determine the particles creation decay point its momentum and its type mass Detecting particles always implies to interact with them Path is thus always affected by observation If it s perfect it ain t real Particle detectors always rely on electromagnetic interaction photons or charged particles C Paus LHC Physics Particle Detectors Overview 5 Definitions and Units Energy of a particle energy E measured in eV 1 6 10 19 J momentum p measured in eV c mass m measured in eV c2 mbee 1 g 5 8 1032 eV c2 vbee 1 m s Ebee 10 3 J 6 25 10 15 eV Ep LHC 14 1012 eV but all protons 1014 108 J m 100 T v 120 km h From special relativity C Paus LHC Physics Particle Detectors Overview 6 Definitions and Units Cross Section cross section or differential cross section expresses probability of a process to occur two colliding bunches N1 t collides with N2 t rate is cross section is an area 1 barn 10 24 cm2 luminosity cm 2 s 1 differential cross section fraction of cross section



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