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MayerMediaMethod03



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Learning and Instruction 13 2003 125 139 www elsevier com locate learninstruc The promise of multimedia learning using the same instructional design methods across different media Richard E Mayer Department of Psychology University of California Santa Barbara CA 93106 USA Abstract Multimedia learning occurs when students build mental representations from words and pictures that are presented to them e g printed text and illustrations or narration and animation The promise of multimedia learning is that students can learn more deeply from well designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone This article explores a program of research aimed at determining a research based principles for the design of multimedia explanations which can be called methods and b the extent to which methods are effective across different learning environments which can be called media A review of research on the design of multimedia explanations conducted in our lab at Santa Barbara shows a a multimedia effect in which students learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone in both book based and computer based environments b a coherence effect in which students learn more deeply when extraneous material is excluded rather than included in both book based and computer based environments c a spatial contiguity effect in which students learn more deeply when printed words are placed near rather than far from corresponding pictures in both book based and computer based environments and d a personalization effect in which students learn more deeply when words are presented in conversational rather than formal style both in computer based environments containing spoken words and those using printed words Overall our results provide four examples in which the same instructional design methods are effective across different media 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved Keywords Computer



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