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The Effect of Wiggler Imperfections on Nonlinear Harmonic Generation in Free-Electron Lasers



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790 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS VOL 37 NO 6 JUNE 2001 The Effect of Wiggler Imperfections on Nonlinear Harmonic Generation in Free Electron Lasers Henry P Freund Sandra G Biedron Member IEEE Stephen V Milton and Heinz Dieter Nuhn Abstract The generation of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental has sparked interest in using this process as a path toward an X ray free electron laser FEL An important issue in this regard is the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic generation to wiggler imperfections Typically linear instabilities in FELs are characterized by increasing sensitivity to both electron beam and wiggler quality with increasing harmonic number However since the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is driven by the growth of the fundamental the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic mechanism is not severely greater than that of the fundamental In this paper we study the effects of wiggler imperfections on the nonlinear harmonics in a 1 5 FEL and show that the decline in the third harmonic emission with increasing levels of wiggler imperfections roughly tracks that of the fundamental Index Terms Electromagnetic radiation electron beam applications free electron lasers frequency conversion frequency domain analysis nonlinearities nonlinear differential equations simulation I INTRODUCTION T HE GENERATION of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental which has been studied in 1 D 1 2 and 3 D analyses 3 5 has sparked interest in using this process as a path toward an X ray free electron laser FEL Studies are in progress for an FEL to serve as a next generation light source The current design for the Linac Coherent Light Source LCLS at SLAC 6 employs an electron beam with an energy of 14 35 GeV and a peak current of 3400 A in conjunction with a planar wiggler with an amplitude of 13 2 kG and a period of 3 0 cm yielding a wiggler 3 7 to generate 1 5 X rays using the strength



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