Innate Immunity and Acquired Immunity

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Innate Immunity and Acquired Immunity

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Lecture Note
University of Southern California
Bisc 307l - General Physiology
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BISC 307L 1st Edition Lecture 30 Current Lecture Innate Immunity  Slide 3- Innate Barrier Defenses o o The stratum corneum has acidic pH is dry and sweat helps keep bacteria in o Ciliated epithelium secretes mucus o Flora protect us from pathogens-compete with other bacteria that may be more pathogenic  Immune System Cells o Innate cellular defenses o These are all leukocytes (white cells) o The ones that are clearly in the blood most of the time: are basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes (marcrophages) o Tissue leukocytes: mast cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and organ specific phagocytes o Most are phagocytic  Neutrophils and macrophages are very active phagocytes  The difference: neutrophils have very short lives (few hours) and macrophages are longer lived  Most of what they do is by means of phagocytosis (main way of killing things)  Usually considered blood born leukocytes but they can leave the blood and enter tissues and do most of their phagocytosis in tissues  Eosiophils phagocytize but their main function is attach to parasitic worms  B lymphocytes are phagocytic (don’t kill, process antigens)  Dentritic cells are phagocytes that don’t leave the tissue  Microglia also are phagocytic and don’t leave the tissue  Kupffer cells in the liver are also fixed phagocytes  Also there are fixed phagocytes in the spleen and lymph nodes o Granulocytes  Granules are vesicles  Neutrophils and eosinophils  Most prominent though are basophils and mast cells (important in triggering inflammation) o Lymphocytes  B: release antibodies  T: number of different functions (one function is to be cytotoxic- attack and kill other cells- share a lot in common with the natural killer cells-target and kill cells of their own body)- the difference is how they select the targets to kill (T = specific and natural killer cells (acquired)= attack broad variety (innate)) o The cells with the * are generally believed to be part of the innate immunity. Nonspecific o The ones without * are seen as acquired immunity (specific) o The problem is that all of these cells cooperate – need both specific and non specific immune defense o How do we recognize these threats:

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