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HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol Process 14 1017 1044 2000 Development and application of a spatially distributed Arctic hydrological and thermal process model ARHYTHM Ziya Zhang Douglas L Kane and Larry D Hinzman Water and Environmental Research Center University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks AK 99775 USA Abstract A process based spatially distributed hydrological model was developed to quantitatively simulate the energy and mass transfer processes and their interactions within arctic regions arctic hydrological and thermal model ARHYTHM The model rst determines the ow direction in each element the channel drainage network and the drainage area based upon the digital elevation data Then it simulates various physical processes including snow ablation subsurface ow overland ow and channel ow routing soil thawing and evapotranspiration The kinematic wave method is used for conducting overland ow and channel ow routing The subsurface ow is simulated using the Darcian approach The energy balance scheme was the primary approach used in energyrelated process simulations snowmelt and evapotranspiration although there are options to model snowmelt by the degree day method and evapotranspiration by the Priestley Taylor equation This hydrological model simulates the dynamic interactions of each of these processes and can predict spatially distributed snowmelt soil moisture and evapotranspiration over a watershed at each time step as well as discharge in any speci ed channel s The model was applied to Imnavait watershed about 2 2 km2 and the Upper Kuparuk River basin about 146 km2 in northern Alaska Simulated results of spatially distributed soil moisture content discharge at gauging stations snowpack ablations curves and other results yield reasonable agreement both spatially and temporally with available data sets such as SAR imagery generated soil moisture data and eld measurements of snowpack ablation and discharge data at selected points The initial timing of simulated

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