New version page

LECTURE NOTES

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4 out of 11 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 11 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

EXAMPLE SENTENCES FOR LESSER PROBLEMS IIINote: Throughout, an asterisk (*) marks each incorrect example.MYSTERIOUS ABBREVIATIONSi.e. (id est) = "that is" viz. (videlicet) = "that is to say" e.g. (exempli gratia) = "for example" cf. (confer) = "compare" etc. (et cetera) = "and the rest"et al. (et alii) = "and others" i.a. (inter alia) = "among others"ca. (or c) (circa) = "about; approximately"re = literally "thing"; figuratively "the matter at hand or under discussion" Q.E.D. (quod erat demonstrandum) = "which was to be demonstrated"N.B. (nota bene) = "take special note"q.v. (quod vide) = "which see" sic = literally "thus" ("Callinectes, in the Asteraceae [sic], is a large genus of crabs.")ibid. (ibidem) = in the same place (used alone)loc. cit. (loco citato) = in the place cited (used with author's name)op. cit. (opere citato) = in the work cited (used with the author's name and page numbers) ad lib. (ad libitum) = "at liberty"; ceteris paribus = "all other things being equal" stet = "let it stand"2sensu = "in the sense of" "The widget, sensu Jones, is somewhat larger than the dingus but not as large as the widget, sensu Smith."sensu lato = "in the wider sense"sensu stricto = "in the narrower sense"in vitro = "in glass" (in the test tube)in vivo = "in life" (in the living organism)in situ = "in place" (in the natural location or habitat)ad hoc = "to the matter" a priori = beforehanda posteriori = afterwardsp. nov. (Latin) = new speciesn. sp. (English) = new speciesg. nov. (Latin) = new genusn. gen. (English) = new genussp. (species, singular)spp. (species, plural) ssp. (subspecies) p. (page)pp. (pages)cc (copies, not carbon copy)@ ("at" in the sense of individual price, for example "Twenty-six miles @ $0.17," ergo = "therefore" ipso facto = "by the fact itself" per se = "of itself"3INCORRECT SUBSTITUTIONS if/whether1. If it rains, I will carry an umbrella.2. I refuse to attend if he will be there.3. I want to know if he is coming.4. I want to know whether he is coming.5. This apparatus will allow us to see if the lens is sufficiently clear.since/because6. It has been raining since noon.7. Since Bruce got his new car, he's insufferable.8. Since the experiment was begun on Tuesday, we have decided to continue it for a second week.9. Since the emergence of modern science in the 16th and 17th centuries—that is, the Scientific Revolution--is central to the discipline, it was inevitable that it would be subjectto reassessment. Science 250:1600.while/although/whereas10. The sample was stirred constantly while it was heated to 37°C.11. The frogs showed no activity while the owl was present at the pond.12. *While we do not understand the mechanism involved, we are confident of our ability to predict the results.13. *While the data are ambiguous, we are confident of our methods.14. *The results of the first experiment were unambiguous, while those the second are not.15. *In England, aquatic turtles are called "turtles," while terrestrial ones are called "tortoises."16. One sample was stirred constantly, while the other was held stationary.4less/fewer17. *The cuts left us with fewer butter (water, wood) than before.18. The cuts left us wit less butter (water, wood) than before.19. *The cuts left us with less trees (people, ideas) than before.20. The cuts left us wit fewer trees (people, ideas) than before.differ/vary21. Size at metamorphosis differs, however, in the two cases.22. Size at metamorphosis varies, however, in the two cases.23. *Concentration of the compound varies from cell to cell.24. Concentration of the compound varies with pH.so/so that25. It started raining, so I opened my umbrella.26. I strung a wire across the hall so that Dan would trip over it.27. I strung a wire across the hall so Dan would trip over it.28. *It started raining, so that I opened my umbrella.29. *One settling plate abutted the rock face so that animals settling on the inside surface were protected from predators.30. One settling plate was placed flush with the rock face so that animals settling on the inside surface would be protected from predators.31. One settling plate abutted the rock face, so animals settling on the inside surface were protected from predators.32. Igor is so thoroughly devoid of all ethical principles (*so) that no one will collaborate with him.33. Igor is devoid enough of all ethical principles (*so) that no one will collaborate with him.5can/may34. I can cook, but I don't do it often.35. I can cook, but I may not. (My mother won't let me. Permission.)36. I can cook, but I may not.(If I don't feel well, I will decide not to. Possibility.)37. An important conclusion that can (*may) be drawn from our results is that aphidicolin does not exert any direct inhibitory effects on nuclear-envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, and cytokinesis.38. The reader may conclude that the results are flawed, but the data from the second experiment clearly show instead that . . .39. The static sperm tail that projects through the elevated fertilization coat can be observed in Figs. 12.1e-h.thus/therefore40. It rained heavily yesterday.Therefore (*thus), I wore rubber boots today. 41. I am wearing rubber boots today and am thus (or therefore) able to walk through puddleswithout getting my shoes wet.42. I swung my arm widely and thus (or therefore, with slightly different meaning) knocked over a lamp.43. The salmon leaped up each level of the cascade, rested briefly before leaping up the next, and thus ( or therefore, with slightly different meaning) eventually reached the top.44. The transformation is tedious, but treating the data thus (*therefore) make the conclusions much more obvious.6NEOLOGISMS45. *Our educational program targets middle-school students.46. *Our educational program is targeted at middle-school students.47. Our educational program is aimed at (intended for, directed toward) middle-school students.48. *The insertion is targeted at the X chromosome.49. The insertion's target is the X chromosome.50. The target for the insertion is the X chromosome.51. Surgery predates chemotherapy as a cancer treatment.52. *Lynxes predate (or predate on) snowshoe hares.53. Lynxes prey on snowshoe hares.54. *Half of the sample was solubilized in ether.55. Half of the sample was dissolved in ether.56. We quantified (*quantitated) fitness as total leaf area per shoot.57. *We quantified temperature in degrees Celsius.58. We measured temperature in degrees Celsius.59. *The hare's great speed


Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view LECTURE NOTES and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view LECTURE NOTES and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?