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nawtec06-02

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nawtec06-0002-0001nawtec06-0002-0002nawtec06-0002-0003nawtec06-0002-0004nawtec06-0002-0005nawtec06-0002-0006nawtec06-0002-0007nawtec06-0002-0008nawtec06-0002-0009nawtec06-0002-0010nawtec06-0002-0011nawtec06-0002-0012The Road to Reuse: York County's Ash Management Program ABSTRACT David E. Vollero York County Solid Waste and Refuse Authority 2700 Blackbridge Road York, Pennsylvania 17402 Douglas E. Sawyers Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Brandywine II Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania 19317 The decreasing availability of new waste disposal sites, difficulty in obtaining regulatory approval and public acceptance for such sites, coupled with the need to control solid waste management cost, continues to drive solid waste managers to develop more efficient and cost-effective programs. One aspect of municipal waste management that has been the subject of much debate is municipal waste combustor ash. The current combination of emerging technologies, project economics, and regulatory acceptance has led to the active consideration of beneficial use of ash as a viable management alternative. This paper presents a case study of the development of York County's ash management program. Designed to coordinate with the existing integrated Solid Waste Management Plan, York County's Ash Management Planning Study evaluated long-term ash management options including alternatives such as disposal and recycling; treatment and processing technologies; markets; regulatory factors; comparative cost analyses; as well as comparative risk analyses. Using the Ash Management Planning Study as its road map, York County pursued the procurement of ash treatment and recycling services that resulted in the selection of the full-service ash recycling vendor, American Ash Recycling Corporation. This paper traces the process followed by York County to develop its comprehensive ash management program. INTRODUCTION York County is located in Southcentral Pennsylvania, just north of Maryland and immediately west of the Susquehanna River. With a population approaching 360,000, approximately 420,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated each year. The majority of York County's populace resides in the vicinity of the County's seat, the City of York, located near its geographical center. In 1971 the York County Commissioners chartered the York County Solid Waste and Refuse Authority (the Authority) to plan for and facilitate environmentally responsible, safe, and economically effective management of all MSW generated within York County. The County's 1971 Solid Waste Management Plan established the specific goal of minimizing dependence on landfilling by maximizing the use of environmentally responsible alternatives, including resource recovery through waste-to-energy and other recycling techniques. That goal has since been restated in both the 1985 and 1991 revisions of York County's original solid waste management plan. In 1985, the Authority committed to waste-to-energy to serve the residents of York County. The York County Resource Recovery Center (York County RRC) commenced operations in 1989 and has since processed all of the combustible MSW generated within the County, as well as waste from out-ofcounty contract and spot market sources; a total averaging more than 440,000 tons per year for 1996 and 1997. The success of the York County RRC is complemented by other components of York County's integrated solid waste management system including leaf and yard waste compo sting, source-separated 21recyclable collection, landfilling of non-combustible wastes and York County RRC ash residue, and public education programs emphasizing waste minimization and recycling. Beginning in 1998, the Authority will close the recycling loop on all waste processed at the York County RRC when they commence delivery of York County RRC ash to a recycling facility to be constructed, owned, and operated by the American Ash Recycling Corporation (AAR). SURVEYING THE ROUTE From the time of facility startup through December 1997, the majority of ash from the York County RRC was disposed in a mono fill cell at the York County Sanitary Landfill. During 1996 and 1997, a portion of the ash was used as daily cover material at Waste Management, Inc.' s Modem Landfill, also located in York County. With the York County Sanitary Landfill entering closure in early 1998, the Authority initiated the development of a comprehensive ash management program in 1995 to ensure continued ash management services that are both environmentally responsible and cost-effective. Several ash management strategies were investigated, including landfill disposal, treatment and processing technologies, and beneficial use. To be certain that the ash management program was consistent with the overall solid waste management strategy, the Authority established a set of primary objectives on which the program would be based. These objectives are: 1) to maintain compliance with ash testing/characterization protocols in accordance with regulatory requirements and to maintain the status of the York County RRC ash as non-hazardous waste; 2) to maintain a cost-effective ash management program; 3) - to allow for beneficial use to the greatest extent practicable; and 4) to incorporate flexibility so that currently developing and future ash management alternatives may be implemented. Ash Management Planning Study York County's ash management program was developed based on a two-phased Ash -Management Planning Study (Study). Phase I consisted of the identification and evaluation of potential ash treatment technologies that could satisfy the first objective listed above. Phase II evaluated ash management alternatives based on compliance with the four primary objectives. Only those technologies identified as acceptable in Phase I were considered in Phase II. Phase I - Evaluation of Ash Treatment Technologies Based on the knowledge and experience of the Authority and their consultant, Malcolm Pimie, Inc., potential ash treatment technologies were identified for consideration. The potential treatment technologies are listed in Table 1. Commercially available proprietary treatment technologies, for which either licensing agreements or vendor/operator service are required, were compared to non-proprietary technologies which the Authority could develop and implement on its own. Additionally, a no treatment option was included to serve as a basis


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