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Dr. Michael R. Hyman, NMSUMethods for Collecting Survey Data(Click icon for audio)2There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages3Communicating with Respondents• Personal interviews– Door-to-door– Shopping mall intercepts• Telephone interviews• Self-administered questionnaires– Mail– Internet (Web and e-mail)4Factors to Consider When Choosing a Collection Method• Available budget• How quickly data needed• Complexity/structure/length of questionnaire• Need for stimuli exposure• Sampling precision• Quality of data• Respondent interest in topic• Ease of obtaining respondent cooperation• Incidence rate5Personal Interviews6Door-to-Door Interviews• Speed of data collection– Moderate to fast• Geographical flexibility– Limited to moderate• Respondent cooperation– Excellent• Versatility of questioning– Quite versatile7Door-to-Door Interviews• Questionnaire length– Long• Item non-response– Low• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding– Lowest8Door-to-Door Interviews• Degree of interviewer influence of answer– High• Supervision of interviewers– Moderate• Anonymity of respondent– Low9Door-to-Door Interviews• Ease of call back or follow-up– Difficult• Cost– Highest• Special features– Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible10Mall Intercept Interviews• Speed of data collection– Fast• Geographical flexibility– Confined, urban bias• Respondent cooperation– Moderate to low– Versatility of questioning• Extremely versatile11Mall Intercept Interviews• Speed of data collection– Fast• Geographical flexibility– Confined, urban bias• Respondent cooperation– Moderate to low– Versatility of questioning– Extremely versatile12Mall Intercept Interviews• Questionnaire length– Moderate to long• Item non-response– Medium• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding– Lowest13Mall Intercept Interviews• Degree of interviewer influence of answers– Highest• Supervision of interviewers– Moderate to high• Anonymity of respondent– Low14Mall Intercept Interviews• Ease of call back or follow-up– Difficult• Cost– Moderate to high• Special features– Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible15Telephone Surveys• Central location interviewing• Computer-assisted telephone interviewing• Computerized voice-activated interviews16Telephone Surveys• Speed of data collection– Very fast• Geographical flexibility– High• Respondent cooperation– Good• Versatility of questioning– Moderate17Telephone Surveys• Questionnaire length– Moderate• Item non-response– Medium• Possibility of misunderstanding– Average• Degree of interviewer influence of answer– Moderate18Telephone Surveys• Supervision of interviewers– High, especially with central location WATS interviewing• Anonymity of respondent– Moderate• Ease of call back or follow-up– Easy19Telephone Surveys• Cost– Low to moderate• Special features– Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology2021Mail Surveys• One Shot• Mail Panel22Mail Surveys• Speed of data collection– Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow• Geographical flexibility– High• Respondent cooperation– Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate23Mail Surveys• Versatility of questioning– Highly standardized format• Questionnaire length– Varies depending on incentive• Item non-response– High24Mail Surveys• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding– Highest--no interviewer present for clarification• Degree of interviewer influence of answer– None--interviewer absent• Supervision of interviewers– Not applicable25Mail Surveys• Anonymity of respondent– High• Ease of call back or follow-up– Easy, but takes time• Cost– Lowest26Internet Surveys• Self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site • Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer2728Internet Surveys• Speed of data collection– Instantaneous• Cost effective• Geographic flexibility– Worldwide• Visual and interactive29Internet Surveys• Versatility of questioning– Extremely versatile• Questionnaire length– Individualized base on respondent answers– Longer questionnaires with panel samples• Item non-response– Software can assure none30Internet Surveys• Possibility for respondent misunderstanding– High• Interviewer influence of answers– None• Supervision of interviewers not required31Internet Surveys• Anonymity of Respondent– Respondent can be anonymous or known• Ease of Callback or Follow-up– Difficult unless e-mail address is known• Special Features– Allows graphics and streaming media32Internet Surveys: Sample Representativeness• Subject to self-selection bias• Some people without Internet access• Some people lack powerful PCs with high-speed Internet connections• Some respondents relatively unsophisticated computer users• When opt-in not used, cooperation is low33E-Mail Surveys• Speed of data collection– Instantaneous• Geographic flexibility– Worldwide• Cheaper distribution and processing costs34E-Mail Surveys• Flexible, but– Extensive differences in capabilities of respondents’ PCs and e-mail software limit types of questions and layouts • E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur• Respondent cooperation– Varies if e-mail is seen as “spam”35Summaries of Relative Advantages of Disadvantages of Different Data Collection


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