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GAVILAN BIO 7 - Respiratory System

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Respiratory System: Exchange of Gases Ch. 10 Human Respiratory SystemRespiration ProcessesThe Upper Respiratory TractUpper Respiratory TractThe Lower Respiratory TractLower Respiratory TractGas Exchange Between the Blood and AlveoliSlide 8Respiratory CycleMeasurement of Lung CapacityGas Exchange and Transport: A Passive ProcessHow O2 and CO2 are Transported in BloodSlide 13Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System InvolvementRegulation of BreathingDisorders of Respiratory SystemSlide 17Slide 18Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Respiratory System: Exchange of GasesCh. 10 Human Respiratory SystemFigure 10.1NosePassageway for airMouthPassageway for food and airEpiglottisCovers larynxduring swallowingPleural membranesCover the lungs and linethe chest cavityLungOrgan of gasexchangeIntercostal muscleMoves ribs duringrespirationNasal cavityFilters, warms, andmoistens airLarynx (Voice box)Production of soundTrachea (Windpipe)Main airwayBronchiBranching airwaysPharynx (Throat)Common passagewayfor air, food, and liquidAlveoliAir sacs forgas exchangeRight lung Left lungRibDiaphragmSkeletal muscleof respirationUPPER RESPIRATORYTRACTLOWER RESPIRATORYTRACTCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Respiration ProcessesBreathing (ventilation): moving air in and out of lungsExternal respiration: gas exchange between air and bloodInternal respiration: gas exchange between blood and tissuesCellular respiration: oxygen use to produce ATP, carbon dioxide as wasteCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.The Upper Respiratory TractFigure 10.2Nasal cavityExternal noseNostrilTongueLarynxEsophagusEpiglottisGlottisPharynxOpening of theauditory tubeSinusesTracheaCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Respiratory TractFunctionsPassageway for respirationReceptors for smellFilters larger foreign material from incoming airMoistens and warms incoming airResonating chambers for voiceCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.The Lower Respiratory TractFigure 10.3TracheaBronchiolesLeftbronchusClustersof alveoliLarynxRightbronchusCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Lower Respiratory TractFunctionsLarynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound productionTrachea: transports air to and from lungsBronchi: branch into lungsLungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchangeCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Gas Exchange Between the Blood and AlveoliFigure 10.8a (1 of 3)Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Gas Exchange Between the Blood and AlveoliFigure 10.8a (2 of 3) and (3 of 3)Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Respiratory CycleFigure 10.9Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Measurement of Lung CapacityFigure 10.10aCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Gas Exchange and Transport: A Passive ProcessGases diffuse according to their partial pressuresExternal respiration: gases exchanged between air and bloodInternal respiration: gases exchanged with tissue fluidsOxygen transport: bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells or dissolved in blood plasmaCarbon dioxide transport: dissolved in blood plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or in the form of plasma bicarbonateCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.How O2 and CO2 are Transported in BloodFigure 10.12 (1 of 2)Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.How O2 and CO2 are Transported in BloodFigure 10.12 (2 of 2)Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System InvolvementRespiratory center in the medulla oblongataEstablishes basic breathing patternChemical receptorsMonitor carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and oxygen levelsMedullaSensitive to hydrogen ions in cerebrospinal fluid resulting from carbon dioxide in bloodCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Regulation of BreathingFigure 10.13Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Disorders of Respiratory SystemReduced air flowAsthmaEmphysemaBronchitisCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Disorders of Respiratory SystemInfectionsPneumoniaTuberculosisBotulismCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Disorders of Respiratory SystemLung cancerCongestive heart failureCystic


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