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14/05/00 TaCTICS is a project of Florida State UniversityA wide variety of empirically validated procedures and interventionstrategies appropriate for use within family-guided routines exist.The key to success is for the family to guide the intervention processby identifying procedures and strategies that “match” their own andtheir child’s learning style within the routine. Determining that“match” can be accomplished through observation of the careproviderand child within the routine and through conversations with thecareprovider.Because families generally are not familiar with procedures orstrategies supportive of embedding intervention, it is theresponsibility of the interventionist to:• observe the careprovider - child interactions within theroutine;•identify and describe strategies careproviders already usesuccessfully to enhance their feeling of competence;•share the signals and skills the child currently uses within theroutine to provide developmental information;•problem-solve potential opportunities for training to beembedded within the routine without interfering with the routine;• discuss and demonstrate potential strategies as choices forthe careprovider to use;• observe and synthesize the sequence and strategies used bythe careprovider to support implementation.This multi-step process is completed through observations and jointproblem solving between the careprovider and interventionist in acomfortable interaction with the child.Some careproviders, as part of their usual pattern of interactions, usefacial expressions that encourage responses from others, are likely towait for responses, before proceeding, or ask open-ended questions.Others may use gestures as cues, provide repetition, or model moresophisticated skills for the child. Before "teaching" new interventionstrategies to careproviders, it is essential to build upon what eachcareprovider already knows and uses. Identification of effectivestrategies enhances the competence of the careproviders, increasesthe likelihood that the teaching and learning opportunities will occurfrequently, and respects the uniqueness of each careprovider and childdyad.Embedding Intervention inFamily-guided Routines and Activities Therapists as Collaborative Team members for Infant/Toddler Community ServicesMany times careproviders naturallydemonstrate embedded intervention anduse of various strategies within play orcare routines. An observant serviceprovider can capitalize on thisoccurrence and reinforcing itsappropriateness.Cripe, J.W. & Venn, M.L. (1997). Family-guided routines for early intervention services. Young ExceptionalChildren. 1, 18-26Interventionists must:Observe interactionsIdentify careprovider strategiesShare child signalsProblem-solve opportunitiesDemonstrate choicesSynthesize routine2TaCTICS is a project of Florida State University4/05/00In Directive Instruction, adults tend to:•initiate the focus/topic of the teaching interaction;• use direct comments or questions requiring a one wordresponse or simple motor action;•change focus/topics after the child responds;• expect immediate responses;•rely on directives (e.g. “Say, juice,” "Push the button."); and,•use extrinsic reinforcers (“Good”.)Many careproviders equate “teaching” with a very directive style, oftenassociated with the education system they last attended. It is crucialto explain “why” responsive teaching strategies are appropriate forroutines and to share the efficacy data regarding different specificintervention procedures. Families can’t learn to guide the interventionprocess unless interventionists share the information they need tomake decisions.In Responsive Teaching, adults tend to:•provide opportunities for the child to initiate;•use indirect questions or comments to maintain interaction;•continue the exchange for multiple turns;• pause expectantly to provide time for the child to respond orinitiate;• use naturally occurring consequences (juice becomes thereinforcer, not “good talking”.)There is really not a dichotomy of directive vs. responsive strategiesbut rather a continuum with many variations available from whichinterventionists and careproviders may choose. Responsiveinterventions increase opportunities for children to communicate, toinitiate interactions, and to respond with a complex or sophisticatedturn. While children may need to begin learning with physical orverbal assistance, decreasing the support needed increases the child'sindependence.When introducing new intervention principles or specific strategies,actions speak louder than words. Careproviders appreciate thedemonstration of new strategies by service providers. It is easier toremember to embed opportunities and use specific strategies whenthey have observed them rather than just heard or read about them.After demonstrating the strategy, providing opportunities for thecareprovider to practice using the strategy within the routine is crucial.The service provider then has the chance to observe and providefeedback. The demonstration and practice also allows the serviceprovider to be more confident that the goals and strategies within theroutine are appropriate for the child. Discussion and joint problemsolving between the family members and service providers continueto support the family-guided nature of the intervention.NotesNotesNotesNotesNotes34/05/00 TaCTICS is a project of Florida State UniversityService providers must keep in mind that specific teaching strategiesshould not interfere with the flow of the normal routine. Equallyimportant to remember is that not all care providers will becomfortable with every strategy. Just as individualizing outcomesis crucial for young children, teaching strategies must beindividualized for the outcomes, the child and family preferences,and the environment. It is important to give careproviders choicesof strategies they wish to use, and then follow up later by askingthem how comfortable they feel with the specific strategy theyselected. A final caution to the early interventionist is not to overloadcareproviders with multiple strategies in routines. More is notnecessarily better! Responsive Teaching PrinciplesWithin routines and play activities, implementation of the followingresponsive teaching principles facilitate successful interactions andare used as the first level of intervention within FG-ABI. Caregiversincorporate these


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