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Berkeley COMPSCI 182 - Lecture Notes

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CS 182 Sections 103 - 104AnnouncementsScheduleQuizSlide 5Analyzing “You Throw The Ball”I will get the cupAnother way to think of the SemSpecAnalyzer ChartAnalyzing in ECGRecognizer for the Transitive-CnLearning-Analysis Cycle (Chang, 2004)Slide 13Usage-based Language LearningBasic Learning IdeaInitial Single-Word StageNew Data: “You Throw The Ball”Relational Mapping ScenariosSlide 19Merging Similar ConstructionsResulting ConstructionComposing Co-occurring ConstructionsSlide 23Slide 24Minimum Description LengthSize Of GrammarExample: The Throw-Ball CxnComplexity of Data Given GrammarFinal RemarkCS 182Sections 103 - 104slides created by:Eva Mok ([email protected])modified by jgmApril 26, 2006Announcements•a9 due Tuesday, May 2nd, 11:59pm•final paper due Tuesday May 9th, 11:59pm•final exam Tuesday May 9th in class•final review?Schedule•Last Week–Constructions, ECG–Models of language learning•This Week–Embodied Construction Grammar learning–(Bayesian) psychological model of sentence processing•Next Week–Applications–Wrap-UpQuiz1. How does the analyzer use the constructions to parse a sentence?2. What is the process by which new constructions are learned from <utterance, situation> pairs?3. What are ways to re-organize and consolidate the current grammar?4. What metric is used to determine when to form a new construction?Quiz1. How does the analyzer use the constructions to parse a sentence?2. What is the process by which new constructions are learned from <utterance, situation> pairs?3. What are ways to re-organize and consolidate the current grammar?4. What metric is used to determine when to form a new construction?“you”youschema Addresseesubcase of HumanFORM (sound)MEANING (stuff)Analyzing “You Throw The Ball”“throw”throwschema Throwroles:throwerthrowee“ball”ballschema Ballsubcase of Object“block”blockschema Blocksubcase of Objectt1 before t2t2 before t3Thrower-Throw-Objectt2.thrower ↔ t1t2.throwee ↔ t3“the”AddresseeThrowthrowerthroweeBallI will get the cupthe analyzer allows the skipping of unknown lexical itemshere is the SemSpecCauseMove1:CauseMove mover = {Cup1:Cup} direction = {Place2:Place} causer = {Entity4:Speaker} motion = Move1:Move mover = {Cup1:Cup} direction = Place2:Place agent = {Entity4:Speaker} agent = {Entity4:Speaker} patient = {Cup1:Cup}Referent2:Referent category = {Cup1:Cup} resolved-ref = {Cup1:Cup}Referent1:Referent category = {Entity4:Speaker} resolved-ref = {Entity4:Speaker}Remember that the transitive construction takes 3 constituents:agt : Ref-Exprv : Cause-Motion-Verbobj : Ref-Exprtheir meaning poles are:agt : Referentv : CauseMoveobj : ReferentAnother way to think of the SemSpecAnalyzer ChartChart Entry 0: Transitive-Cn1 span: [0, 4] processed input: i bring cup Skipped: 1 3 semantic coherence: 0.56 I-Cn1 span: [0, 0] processed input: i Skipped: none semantic coherence: 0.3333333333333333Chart Entry 2: Bring-Cn1 span: [2, 2] processed input: bring Skipped: none semantic coherence: 0.9090909090909091Chart Entry 4: Cup-Cn1 span: [4, 4] processed input: cup Skipped: none semantic coherence: 0.2857142857142857Analyzing in ECGcreate a recognizer for each construction in the grammarfor each level j (in ascending order)repeatfor each recognizer r in jfor each position p of utteranceinitiate r starting at puntil the number of states in the chart doesn't changeRecognizer for the Transitive-Cn•an example of a level-1 construction is Red-Ball-Cn•each recognizer looks for its constituents in order (the ordering constraints on the constituents can be a partial ordering)agt v objI get cuplevel 0level 2level 1Constructions(Utterance, Situation)1. Learner passes input (Utterance + Situation) and current grammar to Analyzer.AnalyzeSemantic Specification,Constructional Analysis2. Analyzer produces SemSpec and Constructional Analysis.3. Learner updates grammar:Hypothesizea. Hypothesize new map.Reorganizeb. Reorganize grammar (merge or compose).c. Reinforce(based on usage).Learning-Analysis Cycle (Chang, 2004)Quiz1. How does the analyzer use the constructions to parse a sentence?2. What is the process by which new constructions are learned from <utterance, situation> pairs?3. What are ways to re-organize and consolidate the current grammar?4. What metric is used to determine when to form a new construction?AcquisitionReorganizeHypothesizeProductionUtterance(Comm. Intent, Situation)GenerateConstructions(Utterance, Situation)AnalysisComprehensionAnalyzePartialUsage-based Language LearningBasic Learning Idea•The learner’s current grammar produces a certain analysis for an input sentence•The context contains richer information (e.g. bindings) that are unaccounted for in the analysis•Find a way to account for these meaning relations (by looking for corresponding form relations)SemSpecr1r2r1r2r3r1r2Contextr1r2r1r2r3r1r2“you”“throw”“ball”youthrowball“block”blockschema Addresseesubcase of HumanFORM (sound)MEANING (stuff)lexical constructionsInitial Single-Word Stageschema Throwroles:throwerthroweeschema Ballsubcase of Objectschema Blocksubcase of Object“you”youschema Addresseesubcase of HumanFORM MEANINGNew Data: “You Throw The Ball”“throw”throwschema Throwroles:throwerthrowee“ball”ballschema Ballsubcase of Object“block”blockschema Blocksubcase of Object“the”AddresseeThrowthrowerthroweeBallSelfSITUATIONAddresseeThrowthrowerthroweeBallbeforerole-fillerthrow-ballRelational Mapping ScenariosAfBfAmBmABform-relationrole-fillerthrow ball throw.throwee ↔ ballAfBfAmBmABform-relationrole-fillerXrole-fillerput ball down put.mover ↔ balldown.tr ↔ ballAfBfAmBmABform-relationrole-fillerYrole-fillerNomi ball possession.possessor ↔ Nomipossession.possessed ↔ ballQuiz1. How does the analyzer use the constructions to parse a sentence?2. What is the process by which new constructions are learned from <utterance, situation> pairs?3. What are ways to re-organize and consolidate the current grammar?4. What metric is used to determine when to form a new construction?Merging Similar Constructionsthrow before blockThrow.throwee = Blockthrow before ball Throw.throwee = Ballthrow before-s ingThrow.aspect = ongoingthrow-ing the ballthrow the


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