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UT PSY 338K - PSY 338K Final Exam

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1Psychology 338KSpring 2000Final Exam 1. Voltaire described writing as the painting of the voice. His definition captures the fact that while writingdoes convey ideas, it does so thru the medium ofa. acoustics.b. language.c. metaphor.d. thought. 2. Spoken language has priority over written language in three ways. Which of these is NOT one of them?a. clarity.b. ontogeny.c. phylogeny.d. universality. 3. The oldest writing we have discovered dates to approximatelya. 45,000 B.C.b. 3200 B.C.c. 1200 B.C.d. 300 B.C. 4. The alphabet dates toa. 45,000 B.C.b. 3200 B.C.c. 1200 B.C.d. 300 B.C. 5. Which of these orthographies is logographic?a. Arabicb. Chinesec Finnishd. Korean Hangul 6. In English, the letter-phoneme correspondences (the cipher) area. one to one.b. one to many.c. many to one.d. many to many. 7. The word “switch” contains ___ phonemes.a. 32b. 4c. 5d638. The peripheral aspect of reading consists of a series of fixations connected by saccades. Whatproportion of those saccades are regressions?a. 1b. 5c. 15d. 50 9. The average fixation duration is ____ milliseconds.a. 15b. 180c. 250d. 500 10. Average saccade length is about ____ characters.a. 4b. 8c. 15d. 21 11. The problem of word recognition can be stated as a question of how we can find the lexical entry for anyof ______ words in ____ milliseconds.a. 5000, 180b. 5000, 250c. 50000, 180d. 50000, 250 12. The major difference between the activation and dictionary models is that the dictionary model posits thatthe letters in a word are recognized in parallel, while the activation model posits that they are recognizedserially.a. True.b. False. 13. Which is a problem for the IAM?a. the word ambiguity effect.b. the word frequency effect.c. the word length effect. 14. Word recognition latency __________ linearly with __________.a. increases, word frequencyb. increases, the logarithm of word frequencyc. decreases, word frequencyd. decreases, the logarithm of word frequency 15. We guesstimated that a 21-year old college student will have read4a. 800,000 words.b. 8,000,000 wordsc. 80,000,000 wordsd. 800,000,000 words516. The ____ most common words in the language (the, of, in, etc.) account for ____ percent of all thewords in print.a. 7, 12b. 12, 25c. 25, 75d. 75, 99 17. The word frequency effecta. is constant across tasks (fixation duration, naming, lexical decision, etc.).b. increases with the difficulty of the task.c. decreases with the difficulty of the task. 18. The phonological recoding hypothesis (PRH) suggests that we __________ the printed word.a. hearb. subvocalize 19. Support for the PRH comes from studies of homophony. These studies have shown that homophonyslows the recognition ofa. word but not pseudowords.b. pseudowords but not words.c. both words and pseudowords.d. neither words nor pseudowords. 20. A view of reading that holds it is primarily determined by the letters on the page is called ____________view of reading.a. a bottom upb. a top downc. an interactive 21. Most students of reading hold that it is interactive, because of the effects of __________ on wordrecognition.a. ambiguityb. contextc. frequencyd. length 22. The effect of context __________ with its predictiveness.a. increasesb. decreasesc. does not vary. 23. In ordinary text, the mean predictability of content words isa. 0.b. .16c. .25.d. .4.7 24. The modal predictability of content words isa. 0.b. .1.c. .25.d. .4. 25. What this adds up to is the conclusion that reading is primarilya. bottom up.b. top down.c. interactive. 26. Many words are ambiguous. In isolation, ambiguous words are processed ________ than unambiguouswords of the same length and frequency.a. fasterb. slowerc. no different 27. In text, ambiguous words tend to be processed _________ than unambiguous.a. fasterb. slowerc. no different 28. When we have disambiguated the words in a text, reading is complete.a. True.b. False. 29. Sentence comprehension must involve different processes than word comprehension. This isbecause sentences tend to bea. ambiguous.b. longer.c. novel. 30. The reason we pay more attention to word recognition (decoding) than comprehension is becausea. reading equals decoding.b. The processes we use to comprehend writing are the same processes we use to comprehendspeech. 31. A debate about reading instruction has raged for centuries. Today the Great Debate pits ___________against ___________.a. language experience against phonicsb. phonics against Whole Languagec. Whole Language against Goodmania.d. Goodmania against language experience.32. A prominent advocate of Whole Language is8a. Marilyn Adams.b. Jeanne Chall.c. Rudolf Flesch.d. Kenneth Goodman.933. Today most educators pledge allegiance toa. code instruction.b. Whole Language.34.The research evidence seems to support a. code instruction.b. Whole Language. 35. The evidence suggests that we are teaching readinga. about as well as we ever did and better than most other countriesb. about as well as we ever did but worse than other other countries.c. worse than we used to but better than most other countries.d. worse than we used to and worse than most other countries .36. The NAEP Oral Reading Study showed that, on a scale of 1 (fluent) to 4 (dysfluent), ___ percent ofAmerican fourth graders ranked 3 or 4.a. 13b. 23c. 33d. 4337. A child learns her first (printed) words by means ofa. the cipher.b. phonemic awareness.c. phonics.d. selective association.38. Evidence for this comes from the fact that when asked to learn a list of words from flashcards,one of which bears a thumbprint, the majority of children learna. the word and the thumbprint.b. the word but not the thumbprint.c. the thumbprint but not the word.d. neither the word nor the thumbprint. 39. When children are taught four four-letter words and then asked if they can recognize the first half and thelast half of each word, most children recognizea. both halves.b. neither half.c. one half but not the other.40. One problem with learning in this way is that it give the child do way to deal with _______ words.a. familiar10b. irregularc. longd. novel1141.To move beyond this, the child must master the cipher. The defining characteristic of the child who has mastercipher is that she can read alouda. regular words.b. irregular words.c. pseudowords.d. sentences.42. Who shows the regularity effect?a. Cipher readers.b. Cipherless readers.43. The key to mastery of the cipher isa.


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